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CSCW & Groupware. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 490 F Autumn 2006. Background. CSCW grew from discontent with single user HCI methods applied to multi-user technologies and settings Focus on Workplace activity Understanding nature of collaborative tasks

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cscw groupware

CSCW & Groupware

Computer Supported Cooperative Work

490 F Autumn 2006

background
Background
  • CSCW grew from discontent with single user HCI methods applied to multi-user technologies and settings
  • Focus on
    • Workplace activity
    • Understanding nature of collaborative tasks
    • Co-evolution of technologies and communities
  • Early apps
    • CAD, computer integrated manufacturing, computer aided software engineering, office automation
what is cscw
What is CSCW?
  • Work is a social activity
    • People and their activities are integral to design of technology
  • Workers may have social proximity despite physical/temporal distance.
    • The water cooler effect.
cscw focuses on people working with others
CSCW focuses on people working with others

Community

Organization

Project teams

Small groups

Individuals

CSCW

HCI

traditional HCI

related fields
Related Fields
  • Behavioural Science
    • Social psychology
    • Organizational science
    • Anthropology
    • Sociology
  • Computer Science
    • Distributed computing
    • Networking
    • User interface/visualization
    • Mobile & wireless
  • Telecommunications
    • Telephony
    • video
related methods
Related methods

Involve users!

  • User Centered Design
    • Focus on user at the interface
  • Management Studies
    • Focus on decision making
  • Contextual Analysis and Design
    • Interviews in work settings
  • Participatory Design
    • Have the user be a designer
  • Anthropology/Ethnography
    • Long term study of groups/organizations
face to face communication
Face to Face communication
  • Personal Space
  • Eye contact and gaze
    • Can convey interest, confusion, boredom
  • Gestures and body language
  • Back channels, confirmation, interruption
    • Back channels = nods, shrugs, small noises
  • Turn Taking
    • Ums, ahs, pauses
  • What happens when these channels are unavailable?
face to face vs cmi
Face to Face vs CMI

Communication

Face to Face

Coordination

Information

Computer mediated interaction

Communication

Coordination

Information

beyond being there
Beyond Being There
  • What are some advantages of computer mediated collaboration over face to face?
dimensions of cooperation
Dimensions of Cooperation

Location

Time

What are some examples of applications in these areas?

dimensions of cooperation1
Dimensions of Cooperation

Location

Time

What are some examples of applications in these areas?

slide12
Location

Time

Where would google documents fit?

activity spectrum
Activity Spectrum

Awareness

Shared Experience

Loosely coupled activity

Social Activities

Informal Interactions

Locating Colleagues

Office Sharing

Meetings

Focused work tasks

Highly interactive activity

organizational issues
Organizational Issues
  • Who benefits?
  • Free rider problem
  • Critical mass
  • Changing power structures

Benefits of use

Cost of use

Number of users

Critical Mass

other issues
Other issues
  • Reciprocity / Symmetry
    • If you do work for a system, you should get some benefit
  • Fitting in with organizational structure and values
  • Flexibility
  • Cost
    • Setup
    • Maintenance
granularity
Granularity

Network system with locking

Large

Small

Chunk size

Shared editor

Frequent Infrequent

Update

groupware systems
Groupware systems
  • Email
  • Videoconferencing
  • Lotus Notes
  • Bulletin Boards
  • Google Documents
email
Email
  • Where does it fit?
  • Why is it successful? Where has it failed?

Place/Space

Time

videoconferencing
Videoconferencing
  • Where does it fit?
  • Why isn’t it more popular?

Place/Space

Time

videoconferencing1
Videoconferencing
  • What are the difficulties?
  • How has it failed?
  • How has it succeeded?
  • How could it be improved?
    • Clearboard/Teamworkstation (Ishii et al)
    • VideoWhiteboard (Tang et al)
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