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Promoting Health Behavior Change. Chapter 1. Pre-test. You will need a scantron and a pencil. Test Your Knowledge T/F. In 1900, infectious diseases such as pneumonia and tuberculosis were responsible for more than one-third of all deaths in the U.S.

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pre test
  • You will need a scantron and a pencil
test your knowledge t f
Test Your Knowledge T/F
  • In 1900, infectious diseases such as pneumonia and tuberculosis were responsible for more than one-third of all deaths in the U.S.
  • TRUE Now—only about 2%--heart disease, cancer, stroke = 50%
test your knowledge t f1
Test Your Knowledge T/F
  • The leading cause of death among Americans age 15-34 is unintentional injuries (accidents).
  • TRUE—homicide and suicide are #2 and #3—death rate for males more than twice females
test your knowledge t f2
Test Your Knowledge T/F
  • Which of the following lifestyle factors is the leading preventable cause of death for Americans?
    • Cigarette smoking
    • Poor dietary habits and lack of exercise
    • Alcohol abuse
  • B. Smoking (435,000 deaths/yr)
  • Poor diet & inactivity (365,000)
  • Alcohol (more than 80,000)
test your knowledge t f3
Test Your Knowledge T/F
  • Only 50% of health-related Web sites are nonpromotional and based on scientific information?
  • FALSE: 35%
chapter 1
Chapter 1
  • What is health?
    • The ever-changing process of achieving individual potential in the physical, social, emotional, mental, spiritual and environmental dimensions.
  • What is wellness?
    • Achievement of the highest level of health possible in each of several dimensions
putting your life in gear
Putting Your Life in Gear
  • Reverse: Sickness/disease
  • Neutral: Healthy
  • Forward: Wellness
assess yourself
Assess Yourself
  • Take a few minutes to complete the assessment on page 10
  • This will help you understand each of the dimensions
healthy people 2010 goals health goals for americans
Healthy People 2010 GoalsHealth Goals for Americans
  • Increase the quality and years of healthy life.
  • Eliminate health disparities.
what contributes to health issues for diverse populations
What Contributes to Health Issues for Diverse Populations
  • Gender
  • Race and Ethnicity
  • Inadequate Health Insurance
  • Lifestyle Behaviors
  • Transportation
are men and women different when it comes to their health pg 20
Are men and women different when it comes to their health? Pg. 20
  • Size, structure, function of brain
  • Bone mass
  • Cardiovascular systems
  • Immune systems
  • Alcohol, tobacco, other drugs
  • STD’s
  • Depression
health people 2010 28 focus areas
Health People 2010: 28 Focus Areas
  • Examples: Page 9
    • Nutrition and overweight
    • Safety
    • Substance abuse
    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Injury and accident prevention
    • Maternal, infant and child health
    • Tobacco use
disease prevention
Disease Prevention
  • Primary: Actions to stop problems before they start (safe sex, not smoking, immunization)
  • Secondary: Intervention early in the development of the health problem (oung smoker taking action to reduce/quit smoking)
  • Tertiary: Treatment and/or rehab efforts


u s causes of death all
U.S. Causes of Death/All
  • Heart disease 685,089
  • Cancer 556,902
  • Cerebrovascular diseases 157,689
  • Chronic lower respiratory diseases 126,382
  • Unintentional/Injuries 109,277
  • Diabetes
  • Pneumonia/Influenza
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Other Countries: Infection/Poverty
u s causes of death 15 24
U.S. Causes of Death/15-24
  • Unintentional injuries 15,412
  • Homicide 5,219
  • Suicide 4,010
  • Malignant neoplasms 1,730
  • Diseases of the heart 1,022
leading preventable causes of death pg 5
Leading Preventable Causes of Death—pg. 5

1. Tobacco (close to #2)

2. Poor diet/Physical inactivity

3. Alcohol consumption

4. Microbial agents

(e.g. influenza, pneumonia)

5. Toxic agents (e.g. pollutants, asbestos)

6. Motor vehicles

7. Firearms

8. Sexual behavior

9. Illicit drug abuse

health statistics
Health Statistics
  • 1900 F 50.9 M 47.9
  • 1950 F 71.1 M 65.6
  • 1996 Overall 76.1
  • 2004 Overall 76.9
  • F outlive M average of 6 years
  • White Males 73.8 Black M 66.1
  • White infant 6% Black 14.2%
  • WHY?

Life Expectancy = 61 years

Illness – unstoppable & deadly

Poor/lack of medical care/ treatment

Unsanitary living conditions

Contamination (water, air, human waste)


Life Expectancy = 76-85 years

Vaccinations/medical advances

Control of environment

(safe/healthy water, food)

Motor vehicle safety

Workplace safety

Control of infectious diseases

Reduction of CVD & stroke deaths

Maternal/infant care

Family planning

Recognition of tobacco as health hazard

choosing wellness
Choosing Wellness
  • Responsibility
  • Stress
  • Mentally Healthy
  • Relationships
  • Toxins
  • Diet/Exercise
  • Health Care System
  • Understanding Illness
  • Natural process of aging
  • Understanding the Environment
getting started
Getting Started
  • Examine current health habits
  • Choose a target behavior
  • Obtain information about your target behavior
  • Find outside help
building motivation for change
Building Motivation for Change
  • Examine the pros and cons
  • Boosting self-efficacy
    • Locus of control
      • Internal control versus External control
    • Visualization
    • Self-Talk
    • Social Support
  • Identify and overcome barriers to change
  • 75% of deaths in U.S. linked to chronic disease
  • 50%+ Americans don’t exercise
  • ~90% say they know they should
  • ~60% describe themselves as OW
  • 26% smoke
  • ~40% don’t have annual check-ups
  • 40-80% quit within 6 weeks


what shapes your behavior
What Shapes Your Behavior?
  • Three types of influences that shape behavior:
  • Predisposing Factors: Knowledge, attitude, beliefs, values, perceptions. Knowledge isn’t enough--you may know smoking is unhealthy but still don’t quit.
what shapes your behavior 2
What Shapes Your Behavior? (2)
  • Enabling Factors: Skills, resources, accessible facilities, physical capabilities, mental capabilities. What means do you have available to reach your goals? Even if you are very motivated, if you hit these obstacles, can have a set back.
what shapes your behavior 3
What Shapes Your Behavior? (3)
  • Reinforcing factors: Praise from others, rewards, encouragement, recognition, sense of achievement. Lasting change comes from internal rewards, internal commitment and sense of achievement.
the stages of change model
The Stages of Change Model

Developed by James Prochaska and

Carlo DiClemente

  • Precontemplation
  • Contemplation
  • Preparation
  • Action
  • Maintenance
    • 6 mths – 5 yrs
  • Termination
developing skills for change creating a personalized plan
Developing Skills for Change:Creating a Personalized Plan
  • Monitor behavior and gather data
  • Analyze data and identify patterns
  • Set specific goals
  • Devise a strategy
    • Obtain information and supplies
    • Modify your environment
    • Reward yourself
    • Involve people around you
    • Plan ahead for challenging situations
  • Make a personal contract
behavior contract assignment
Behavior Contract Assignment
  • See the contract in the front of your book
  • Complete this contract to turn in the next class period
putting your plan into action
Putting Your Plan Into Action
  • Requires commitment
  • Use all strategies
  • Journal Analyze your plan
  • Rewards
staying with it
Staying With It
  • Social influences
  • Levels of Motivation and Commitment—
    • Self-efficacy & External/internal locus of control
  • Choices of techniques and level of effort (may adjust/change)
  • Stress barriers
  • Games People Play
    • (Procrastinating, blaming, rationalizing)
web info
Web Info
  • “Seventy percent of college students obtain health information from the Internet. This makes the Internet second only to students’ parents as a source of information.”
finding reliable health information on the internet
Finding Reliable health Information on the Internet
  • Official government agencies, universities, hospitals/medical centers
  • Peer-reviewed journals
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (
  • World Health Organization (
Aetna Intelihealth:
  • URAC Accredited Health Web Seal (set criteria and have a forum for reporting violations)
  • Cross-check information
  • Watch out for websites trying to sell you something