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Grant Administration • Grant appointed friends and acquaintances with a lack of experience • Spoils system (Jackson would approve!!!) • Many turned out to be dishonest • Construction company kick-back (V.P.) • Whiskey Ring • Bribes to IRS to avoid taxes – costs gov’t billions • Shady land deals
Liberal Republican Party • Wanted “honesty” • Horace Greeley was candidate in 1872 • Lost to Grant • died immediately after election • What you should get out of this: • Republican Party was split in two • Weakened
Review • We have discussed various reasons to support the notion that Reconstruction was a struggle. • When and why did Reconstruction itself collapse? • Think: Democrats, Republicans, Government • Rise of oppositional groups, Amnesty Act, Republican corruption and disunity
Objectives • Continue to trace the demise of the Republican Party and the downfall of Reconstruction. • Determine if Reconstruction was a success or a failure.
In addition… • Panic of 1873 • Railroad company is broke, 3 million jobs lost, currency dispute • Greenback dispute- weren’t backed by gold • Specie Resumption Act 1875- Gold Standard
Long story short… • By 1874, Radical Republicanism is dissolving • Government is struggling, Party is split, ex-Confederates are regaining rights • Supreme Court itself is undermining Republican actions!
Supreme Court Decisions • Slaughterhouse (1873) • Civil Rights were up to states, not federal gov’t (14th amendment undermined) • U.S. v. Cruikshank (1876) • Federal government could not punish people who oppressed blacks (undermined 14th amendment) • U.S. v Reese (1876) • 15th Amendment didn’t grant voting rights, just stated grounds on which they couldn’t be taken away • All were eventually overturned, but at the time did a lot of damage
Equal Rights Fades AwayWhat causes the collapse? • No support of the Supreme Court to enforce laws • Republican Party losing credibility • Reconciliation becomes a priority • ***Government can’t impose moral change • All of this amounts to Civil Rights taking a back seat!!!!!!
Democrats “Redeem” South • 1869 -1875, Democrats regain control of state governments • “Redemption” = Return to power • 1876- Congressional Reconstruction ENDS • Recap: • Lincoln- 1863-1865 • “Presidential Reconstruction”- 1865-1867 • “Congressional Reconstruction” – 1867-1876
Election of 1876 • Corruption = Grant is out! • Republican Rutherford B. Hayes • Democratic Tilden • Cleaned up corrupt Tweed Ring (Boss Tweed… a story for another day)
Election of 1876 • Tilden wins popular vote but not electoral majority • Votes are disputed • Republican commission decides in favor of Hayes • throws out votes from counties that kept voters from the polls • South willing to accept under one condition…
Compromise of 1877 • Withdraw troops from south (Congressional Reconstruction Plan) • Give South money to build a R x R • Appoint Conservative Southerners to cabinet
Bye-Bye Republicans • No longer controlled governments in any Southern states • Democrats achieved “home rule” • Undid pro-black Reconstruction • Restricted rights, wiped out social programs, dismantled public schools • RECONSTRUCTION ENDS (1877)
Review- Downfall • Republicans gave blacks rights, but they were not well protected • Supreme court undermined amendments • Radicals did not provide land reforms for freed slaves • Freed slaves lacked independence • Review: Rebirth of “slavery” • Underestimated racism
What do you think… • Was Reconstruction a success or failure?? • Debate Activity! • Quiz Tuesday!!! (This is your review) • Homestretch: Trace the evolution of the Civil Rights movement through the 1960s.