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Contributed by National Academy of Statistical Administration, India. Demographic Diversity in Districts of India. Background. Decentralised, district-based approach to population and planning. Demographic and development diversity across the districts is well known.

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Presentation Transcript
background
Background
  • Decentralised, district-based approach to population and planning.
  • Demographic and development diversity across the districts is well known.
  • exogenous variables and policy and programme interventions affect demographic and development situation differentially across the districts.
objectives
Objectives
  • Analysis of demographic diversity across 640 districts of India on the basis of provisional data of the 2011 population census.
  • How demographic diversity across districts contributes to demographic diversity across states.
  • Policy and programme implications of demographic diversity across districts.
diversity index
Diversity Index
  • Diversity is measured on a two-dimensional scale
    • The dimension of intensiveness
    • The dimension of extensiveness
  • Intensity is measured in terms of differentials and concentration; differentials are the most basic.
  • Extensiveness is the ratio of the population of the district to the population of the country.
diversity index1
Diversity Index
  • The index of the intensity of diversity is defined as

Idc(v) = log(Vd/Vc)

  • The index of extensiveness is defined as

Edc = Pd/Pc

  • The index of diversity is defined as

Ddc(v) = Edc*(Idc(v))2

diversity index2
Diversity Index
  • The Diversity Index is always positive. The limiting value is zero meaning no diversity.
  • The higher is the index, the larger is the diversity.
  • It is a fuller measure of diversity as it takes into account the relative size of the population.
  • It can be decomposed.
data and variables
Data and Variables
  • Provisional figures of 2011 population census.
  • The following 7 variables can be estimated:
    • Population density
    • Age composition index (P0-6/P)
    • Age composition index (P0-6/P7+)
    • Population sex ratio
    • Child sex ratio
    • Fertility index (P0-6/F7+)
results
Results
  • All the six variables vary widely across the districts.
  • The pattern of distribution is different for different variables.
  • The distribution of population density is highly skewed with a very high value of kurtosis.
  • In 11 districts, population density is more than 10 thousand persons per sq km.
results1
Results
  • District Mumbai in Maharashtra has the highest population density in the country – more than 50 thousand per sq km.
  • In all districts of Delhi, population density is more than 3500 per sq km.
  • The distribution of the index of age composition and the index of fertility is very similar across districts.
results2
Results
  • The skewness in the distribution of the two variables across districts is positive but not very large.
  • The Kurtosis is negative meaning that there is no district with exceptionally high value of these indexes.
  • The distribution of districts by sex ratio has been found to be negatively skewed.
results3
Results
  • There are some districts with extremely low proportion of females to males.
  • In 9 districts, the sex ratio is less than 800 females for every 1000 males.
  • In Daman and Diu, there are only 533 females for every 1000 males.
  • In 101 districts, females outnumbered males at the 2011 population census.
results4
Results
  • The distribution of child sex ratio is more sharply negatively skewed than the population sex ratio.
  • There are however only 6 districts where the child sex ratio is estimated to be less than 800. Four of these 6 districts are in Haryana.
  • There are only three districts where female children outnumbered males children.
results5
Results
  • The distribution of the sex ratio of the population aged 7 years and above is very much similar to the sex ratio of the total population.
  • In Daman and Diu, there are less than 500 females 7+ for every 1000 males 7+.
  • In 117 districts, females outnumber males in this age group with Mahe leading the list.
results6
Results
  • The district level diversity is the highest in case of population density but lowest in case of the sex ratio of the population aged 0-6 years.
  • The kernel density plots confirm this observation. These plots are always positively skewed because the diversity index used in the present analysis is by definition always positive.
results7
Results
  • Most of the demographic diversity is the result of extreme situation in only a few districts.
  • Only 10 per cent of the districts account for
    • 75 per cent of the diversity in population density.
    • 52 per cent of the diversity in age structure.
    • 55 per cent of the diversity in population sex ratio.
    • 49 per cent of the diversity in child sex ratio.
    • 66 per cent of the diversity in sex ratio 7+.
    • 49 per cent of the diversity in fertility index.
results8
Results
  • In case of population density, within state variation accounts for 52 per cent of the total inter-district diversity in the country.
  • In case of fertility index more than 71 per cent of the diversity is accounted by between state variations.
  • Between state component is larger than within state component in five variables.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Most of the demographic diversity is the result of the demographic situation in a few districts of the country.
  • This observation bears significance in the context of the persistence of social, economic, cultural and ecological diversity of the country.
  • Despite this diversity, the demographic situation is similar in most of the districts.
conclusions1
Conclusions
  • In general, the inter-district diversity is largely the result of the diversity across states. Within states, the diversity across the districts is relatively low.
  • Demographic diversity across states in India is well known.
  • Provisional results of 2011 population census confirm that this diversity continue to persist.