1. Motion of an object is described by its position , speed , direction , and acceleration. 2) MKS units are M eters, K ilograms S econds. 3. Initial means “ first ” or “ starting ”. 4 . D = “ delta ” D means “ the change in ” 5. D = final – initial.
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1. Motion of an object is described by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration.
4.1Motion Is Relative 8. An object is moving when its position changes relative to a fixed point.
4.1Motion Is Relative 9 . Vectors or vector quantities have magnitude and direction • Scalars or scalar quantities have only magnitude
4.1Motion Is Relative 12.Distance means total path length an object travels 13.Displacement means final position minus initial position
4.1Motion Is Relative 14. In symbols Displacement =Dxor Dy
Travel around perimeter: from A B
Travel around perimeter: from A BC
Travel around perimeter: from A BC D
Travel around perimeter: from A BCDA
Distance = path length =28 m Displacment = 0
16. Motion is relative: we always describe motion relative to something else
4.1Motion Is Relative How can you tell if an object is moving?
4.2Speed 18. Speed = distance time v = d t
4.2Speed 19. Before Galileo, people described motion as “slow” or “fast.”
4.2Speed 20.Galileo was the first to calculate speed 21. Speed is how fast an object moves
4.2Speed 22. MKS units of speed meters/second = m/sec . v = d t
4.2Speed Instantaneous Speed 23. Instantaneous speed is the speed at an instant of time 24. Speedometer measures instantaneous speed.
4.2Speed The speedometer gives readings of instantaneous speed in both mi/h and km/h.
4.2Speed Average Speed 25. average speed = total distance total time.
4.2Speed Is average speed the same as instantaneous speed?
REARRANGE equation: v = d/t 26. HOW FAR: total distance d = average speed X total time d = v • t
4.2Speed How can you calculate speed?
4.3Velocity 28. Velocity is speed in a specific direction.
4.3Velocity 29. MKS units of Velocity : m/sec
4.3Velocity 30. Velocity is the rate of change of position V = Dx Dt
4.3Velocity 31. Rate always means wrttime
4.3Velocity 32. Speed is a scalar; and Velocity is a vector.
4.3Velocity Constant Velocity 33. Constant velocity means traveling in a straight line at constant speed.
4.3Velocity Changing Velocity 34. Velocity changes if speed changes or direction changes or both change .
4.3Velocity The car on the circular track may have a constant speed but not a constant velocity, because its direction of motion is changing every instant.
4.3Velocity How is velocity different from speed?
4.4Acceleration 37. Acceleration means decreases or increases in velocity. 38. Decreased acceleration is called deceleration.