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Today: Grizzly Bears. We are only one of millions of species on earth. Ecological Interconnections. Grizzly Bears. Grizzly bears are big. How are bears related to each other?. Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 28.

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slide6

How are bears related to each other?

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 28

slide7

12,000 years ago: the grizzly ancestor short-faced bear

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 15

slide8

Short-faced vs grizzly bears

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 17 and 23

slide9

Grizzly bears live most of their lives alone

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 78

slide10

Grizzly bears live most of their lives alone.

What do they do?

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 78

slide12

What do grizzly bears eat?

Ray deLucia and the Grizzly Bear Fight AMNH photo # 296899 Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Library Services

slide15

Different teeth and diets

grizzly

cat

dog

panda

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 54

slide16

Carnivores have a short digestive system

Herbivores have a long digestive system

Fig41.19

slide17

Bears

Humans

Both humans and grizzly bears are omnivores.

Our digestive systems can tell us about our ancestors.

Fig 41.19

slide20

Some grizzlies are excellent predators, but most eat carrion.

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 85

slide21

Grizzlies constant search for food can lead to conflicts with humans.

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 186

slide22

Grizzlies constant search for food can lead to conflicts with humans.

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 215

slide25

Grizzlies have an amazing ability to gain and lose weight.

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 62 and 63

slide26

Grizzly reproduction

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 59

slide27

Female Grizzly Bear reproductive cycle

den w/

mother

fall

juveniles

on own

winter

summer

young

born

fertiliz-ation

spring

Females are not fertile when caring for offspring

slide29

Grizzly cubs are born in the den and are very small (~1 lb)

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 58

slide30

Female Grizzly Bear reproductive cycle

den w/

mother

fall

juveniles

on own

winter

summer

young

born

fertiliz-ation

spring

Females are not fertile when caring for offspring

slide31

Female bears are very protective of their young

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 76

slide32

Infanticide: males will try to kill young so that mother will become fertile

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 77

slide33

Current Grizzly Bear range

Habitat destruction and hunting have severely decreased grizzly populations in the U.S.

Historical Grizzly Bear range

slide34

Yellowstone NP

63 mi

54 mi

  • 466 mi of roads
  • 950 mi of backcountry trails
  • 97 trailheads
  • 287 backcountry campsites
slide37

Where do grizzly bears fit?

Are they important?

How much of our resources should we share with grizzly bears?

slide38

Animal behavior is unpredictable and inexplicable

Bears (1993) Ian Stirling et al., Weldon Owen Pty Ltd pg 231

slide39

Experiment Written Report:

  • Title- Concisely describe your experiment.
  • Author
  • Abstract- Summarize your work. Do not exceed 250 words.
  • Introduction-
  • Results-
  • Discussion-
  • Materials and Methods-
  • References- include: author name(s), article title, journal or book title, volume and page number, and year of publication

Staple your approved proposal to the back of your written report.

slide41

Building Blocks of Scientific Literature

What is peer review?

peer review

slide42

In a peer reviewed journal each article is looked at by an editor, and then it is then sent to two anonymous reviewers.

These reviewers send comments back to the editor.

slide43

After each article is sent to the editor, it is then sent to two anonymous reviewers.

These reviewers send comments back to the editor.

They give suggestions for improvement as well as an opinion about whether it should be published or not.

slide44

The editor then has three choices:

Accept paper as is. (rare)

Accept paper and ask for some changes.

Reject paper. (20-80% rejection rate in physical sciences*)

*Scholarly Consensus and Journal Rejection Rates. Lowell L. Hargens (Feb., 1988) American Sociological Review 53: 139-151

and

Bang for Your Buck: Rejection Rates and Impact Factors in Ecological Journals. The Open Ecology Journal (2008) L.W. Aarssen, T. Tregenza, A.E. Budden, C.J. Lortie, J. Koricheva and R. Leimu 1: 14-19

slide45

Who reviews papers?

Other researchers knowledgeable in the field.

slide48

What is a reliable source?

Can be a great source of sources...

slide49

What is a reliable source?

Who was the author(s)?

Why was it written?

Where was it published?

Who checked/reviewed the article?

xkcd.com