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Janet Taylor Spence. Elizabeth Mattachione Jamie Ward Nicole Larson Masaki Osada Jordan Heroux. Spence’s Background. born August 29, 1923 in Toledo, Ohio Family – emphasis on female education Marriage – Kenneth Spence. Education. High school College – undergraduate College – graduate

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Janet taylor spence

Janet Taylor Spence

Elizabeth Mattachione

Jamie Ward

Nicole Larson

Masaki Osada

Jordan Heroux

Spence s background
Spence’s Background

  • born August 29, 1923 in Toledo, Ohio

  • Family – emphasis on female education

  • Marriage – Kenneth Spence


  • High school

  • College – undergraduate

  • College – graduate

  • Internship

Postgraduate career
Postgraduate Career

  • Northwestern University – 1st woman in psychology department – controversy

  • Courses taught – statistics, abnormal psychology, personality theory, experimental psychology, history and systems, adjustment, and introductory psychology, as well as undergraduate advising.

  • Students like her – “She was loved by all of us—a marvelous, dedicated teacher…students were attracted to her like flies”

  • After marriage – nepotism policies

  • Return to psychology

  • Ashbel Smith Professor of Psychology and Educational Psychology at University of Texas.

The zeitgeist
The Zeitgeist

  • Manifest Anxiety: Hull-Spence Theory

  • Reinforcement, Feedback, and Intrinsic Motivation – extrinsically motivated behavior

  • Gender Issues & Achievement Motivation– rise of feminism

Professional obstacles
Professional Obstacles

  • 1940s

    • Yale faculty

    • Availability of classes

    • IQ research

  • 1970s

    • Cognitive psychology

    • Death of husband

    • Women’s rights movement

Learning theory and behaviorism
Learning Theory and Behaviorism

  • Personality

  • Individual differences

  • Manifest Anxiety Scale

  • Research with Schizophrenia and Reinforcement

Comparing sex role attitudes across ages 1979
Comparing Sex Role Attitudes across Ages (1979)

  • Across all ages, males more traditional

  • Among females, younger more liberal

  • Among males, younger more conservative

Multifactorial gender identity theory 1993
Multifactorial Gender Identity Theory (1993)

  • Continuum of Masculinity-Femininity

  • College men more traditional sex roles

  • College women are less likely to accept traditional roles

Spence s influence on anxiety
Spence’s Influence on Anxiety

  • Worked under Kenneth Spence and furthered the Hull-Spence Hypothesis

    • “Quite simply, I investigated whether chronically anxious individuals would classically condition more rapidly than less anxious individuals.”

  • Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale

  • 1951 - "Anxiety and strength of UCS as determiners of the amount of eyelid conditioning"and "The relationship of anxiety to the conditioned eyelid response"

Spence s influence on schizophrenia
Spence’s Influence on Schizophrenia

  • Veteran’s Hospital in Iowa City (1960)

  • Austin State School for the Mentally Retarded (1964)

  • Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology : “Associative interference in the verbal learning performance of schizophrenics and normals” (1964)

  • Journal of Abnormal Psychology : “Rote learning in schizophrenics and normal subjects under positive and negative reinforcement conditions” (1965)

Spence s influence on women in psychology
Spence’s Influence on Women in Psychology

  • Northwestern University: first female faculty member (1949)

  • University of Texas Austin at Austin School of Education: Department of Educational Psychology Chair (1964)

  • "Who likes competent women? Competence, sex-role congruence of interest, and subjects' attitudes toward women as determinants of interpersonal attraction" (1972)

  • Attitudes Toward Women Scale (1972)

  • President of Southwestern Psychological Association (1972)

  • Personal Attributes Questionnaire (1974)

  • Editor for Contemporary Psychology (1974)

  • President of APA , sixth woman to do so (1984)

  • Founder and president of American Psychological Society (1989) *Only woman to have been president of both the APA and APS

Words reflecting her impact
Words Reflecting Her Impact…

  • “I would consider her impact to be comparable with that of Helen of Troy, the face that launched a thousand ships. In Janet of Austin, we have the face that launched a thousand dissertations.” – Robert Helmreich

  • “I began to receive invitations to give talks at other universities do that I could 'serve as a role model' for their women students. The implication, I think unintended, was that whether one had something worth listening to was relatively unimportant; it was enough to be a woman.”

    – Janet Taylor Spence

Spence s influence on psychology
Spence’s Influence on Psychology

  • Several publications influencing gender, learning, personality, and schizophrenia

  • Concepts of Personality (1963)

  • Awarded the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology (2004)

Strengths of spence s ideas
Strengths of Spence’s Ideas

  • Development of new views

    • Anxiety

    • Importance of Intrinsic Motivation

  • Development of new measurements

    • Manifest Anxiety Scale

    • Attitudes Toward Women Scale (1972)

    • Texas Social Behavior Inventory (1974)

    • Personal Attributes Questionnaire (1974)

    • Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire (1978)

    • Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (1979)

    • Male-Female Relations Questionnaire (1980)

Weakness of spence s ideas
Weakness of Spence’s Ideas

  • Validity of the new measurements

Janet taylor spence1
Janet Taylor Spence

  • In summary…


Gold medal award for life achievement in the science of psychology (2004). American Psychologist, 59, 361-363. Spence, J.T. (1963). Learning Theory and Personality. In J. M. Wepman & R. W. Heine (Eds.), Concepts of Personality (3-28). Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

O’Connell, Agnes N. & Russo, Nancy Felipe. Women in Psychology: A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press, Inc., 1990.

O’Connell, Agnes N. & Russo, Nancy Felipe. Models of Achievement Reflections of Eminent Women in Psychology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Psychiatric Rating Scales for Anxiety. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2007, from http://www.neurotransmitter.net/anxietyscales.html

Spence, J.T., & Lair, C. V. (1964). Associative interference in the verbal learning performance of schizophrenics and normals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68 (2), 204-209, from PsycARTICLES database.

Spence, J.T., Lair, C.V., & Goodstein, L. D. (1965). Rote learning in schizophrenic and normal subjects under positive and negative reinforcement conditions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70(4), 251-261, from PsycARTICLES database.

Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1979). Comparison of masculine and feminine personality

attributes and sex-role attitudes across age groups. Developmental Psychology, 15,


Spence, J.T., & Helmreich, R.L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Spence, J. T. (1963). Learning theory and personality. In J. M. Wepman, & R. W. Heine (Eds.),

Concepts of Personality (pp.3-29). Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.

Spence, J. T. (1993). Gender-related traits and gender ideology: Evidence for a multi-factorial

theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 624-635

Swann, William B., Langlois, Judith H., Gilbert, Lucia.Sexism and Stereotypes in Modern Society: The Gender Science of Janet Taylor Spence. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association, 1999..

Wepman, J. M., & Heine, R.W.. Concepts of Personality Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1963.

Women’s Intellectual Contributions to the Study of the Mind and Society. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2007, from http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/spence.html