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Investigation of Intake Concepts for a Formula SAE Four-Cylinder Engine Using 1D/3D (Ricardo WAVE-VECTIS) Coupled Modeli PowerPoint Presentation
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Investigation of Intake Concepts for a Formula SAE Four-Cylinder Engine Using 1D/3D (Ricardo WAVE-VECTIS) Coupled Modeli - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Investigation of Intake Concepts for a Formula SAE Four-Cylinder Engine Using 1D/3D (Ricardo WAVE-VECTIS) Coupled Modeling Techniques . Mark Claywell Donald Horkheimer Garrett Stockburger University of Minnesota. Agenda . Background Motivation Design Method

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slide1

Investigation of Intake Concepts for a Formula SAE Four-Cylinder Engine Using 1D/3D (Ricardo WAVE-VECTIS) Coupled Modeling Techniques

Mark Claywell

Donald Horkheimer

Garrett Stockburger

University of Minnesota

agenda
Agenda
  • Background
  • Motivation
  • Design Method
  • Simulation Methods and Assumptions
  • Grid Convergence Study
  • Results
  • Flow Visualization
  • Improved Understanding Through Issues Raised By Simulation
  • Conclusion

2006-01-3652

background
Student Design Competition

Events in America, Australia, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom

200+ Universities involved

Team score based on sales presentation, cost report, design quality, acceleration time, fuel economy, skid-pad, auto-cross and endurance race

University of Minnesota SAE Engine

Yamaha YZF-R6, Four Cylinder, Four stroke

600cc Displacement

15,500 rpm redline

Bore = 65.5mm, Stroke = 44.5mm

4-2-1 Exhaust Header

Sequential Port Fuel Injection (student calibrated)

DOHC, 4 valves per cylinder

Compression Ratio = 12.4:1

Fuel – Gasoline, 100 Octane

Background

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design process

Main Focus of Paper

State

Needs

State

Needs

Define

Specifications

Define

Specifications

Generate

Concepts

Generate

Concepts

Evaluate

& Select

Evaluate

& Select

Detailed

Design

Detailed

Design

Manufacture

& Test

Manufacture

& Test

Design Process

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concepts vs designs
Concepts vs Designs

Concepts

Designs

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making concepts comparable
Making Concepts Comparable
  • Geometric Similarities
  • Inlet box to diffuser exit is identical
  • Restrictor geometry identical
  • Plenum volume kept constant
  • Runner length, diameter, and taper kept constant
  • Packaging bend angle held at 55°
ricardo wave and vectis simulation software
Ricardo WAVE and VECTIS Simulation Software

WAVE (1D)

VECTIS (3D)

  • Intake to Tail-Pipe Engine Code
  • Easily provides realistic boundary conditions to CFD solver
  • Uses simple models to analyze complex problems
  • Provides actionable engine performance information
  • Quick simulation time
  • Off the shelf
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Code – More Accurate Flow Results
  • Integrated pre/post-processing and solver
  • Automatic mesh generator works with CAD derived geometry
  • Automotive specific solver modules
  • Easy to implement parallel solver
  • Off the shelf

Guessing at CFD boundary conditions is no good!

WAVE makes the use of VECTIS for intake design worthwhile

No code coupling = Questionable fidelity

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why not a steady state cfd approach
Why Not a Steady State CFD Approach?
  • Agreement between flow solutions is poor
  • Steady state cylinder balance didn’t match
  • Steady state didn’t result in shocks, unsteady did
  • Finding non-tuning design improvements with steady state CFD may still be possible

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simplifying assumptions

Inlet Box

Simplifying Assumptions
  • Assumptions
  • WAVE-VECTIS junctions placed in 1D flow areas
  • No throttle body
  • No fuel spray particles in CFD domain
  • k-ε turbulence model

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grid convergence study
Grid Convergence Study
  • Grid convergence studies
  • ASME, AIAA, and others require it. Good practice.

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results total volumetric efficiency predictions
Results – Total Volumetric Efficiency Predictions
  • Differences in total VE from concept to concept is small
  • VE curves can be made similar by varying intake dimensions

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results absolute average deviation of volumetric efficiency i
Results – Absolute Average Deviation of Volumetric Efficiency (I)
  • Total volumetric efficiency hides the superiority of the best intake concept
  • Individual cylinder to cylinder imbalance needs to be measured to identify best concept

2006-01-3652

results absolute average deviation of volumetric efficiency ii
Results – Absolute Average Deviation of Volumetric Efficiency (II)

Conical-Spline Intake Concept (With Straight Runners)

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results choked flow insights and post diffuser total pressure recovery
Results – Choked Flow Insights and Post Diffuser Total Pressure Recovery
  • Lower AAD results in more regular pressure pulses at throat and lower time of choked flow
  • Beyond a certain diffuser length/area ratio total pressure recovery is limited

Diffuser Exit

Side Entry Intake

Conical Intake

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flow visualization enhanced understanding
Flow Visualization – Enhanced Understanding
  • Look at air and fuel cylinder to cylinder stealing
  • Identify regions of pressure loss and flow separation

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flow visualization enhanced understanding ii
Flow Visualization – Enhanced Understanding II

11,500 RPM

11,500 RPM

14,000 RPM

14,000 RPM

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Looked at how plenum geometry determines performance using WAVE-VECTIS
  • Found grid convergence studies essential for good CFD
  • Conical intake stood out as best
    • Smallest cylinder to cylinder imbalance
      • Better AFR control and acoustic characteristics
    • Regular pressure pulses at throat reduce choked flow
    • Adding bent runners for realistic packaging hurt performance, but only slightly
  • Improved understanding of fluid flow and dynamics

2006-01-3652

questions
Questions?
  • Acknowledgements
  • Ricardo Sponsorship and Support - Patrick Niven & Karl John
  • University of Minnesota Supercomputer Institute - Dr. H. Birali Runesha and Support Staff
  • University of Minnesota SAE Chapter - Dr. Patrick Starr and Dr. David Kittleson
  • Minnesota State University, Mankato - Dr. Bruce Jones

2006-01-3652