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Chapter 1: Introduction

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  1. Chapter 1: Introduction GST

  2. Outline • Definitions • An Engineer and a Scientist • The How of Engineering • Engineering functions • About Geospatial Engineering

  3. Definitions • Engineering is the practical application of science and mathematics to solve problems. • Engineering is the professional art of applying, science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to benefit mankind. The words engineer and ingenious are derived from the same Latin root “ingenerare” meaning “to create”. 

  4. Definitions cont. • Engineering is an art requiring the judgment necessary to adapt knowledge to practical purposes, the imagination to conceive original solutions to problems, and the ability to predict performance and cost of new devices or processes. 

  5. An Engineer and a Scientist • The function of the scientist is to know, while that of the engineer is to do. • The scientist adds to the store of verified, systematized knowledge of the physical world; the engineer brings this knowledge to bear on practical problems.  • Unlike the scientists, the engineer is not free to select the problem that interests him; he must solve problems as they arise

  6. Problems Solved by Engineers • Solution must satisfy conflicting requirements. • Costs - money • Safety - adds to complexity; • Efficiency - improved performance • The engineering solution is the optimum solution, the end result that, taking many factors into account, is most desirable. It is usually not exact. • It may be the cheapest for a specified level of performance, the most reliable within a given weight limit, the simplest that will satisfy certain safety requirements, or the most efficient for a given cost. • In many engineering problems, the social and environmental considerations are made. 

  7. The How of Engineering • Engineers employ two types of natural resources – materials and energy. • Since most resources are limited, the engineer must be concerned with the continual development of new resources as well as the efficient utilization of existing ones. • The results of engineering activities contribute to the welfare of man by furnishing food, shelter, and comfort; by making work, transportation and communication easier and safer; and by making life pleasant and satisfying. 

  8. Engineering Functions • Research. The research engineer seeks new principles and processes by employing mathematical and scientific concepts, experimental techniques, and inductive reasoning.  • Development. The development engineer applies the results of research to useful purposes. Ingenious and creative application of new knowledge may result in a working model of a new electronics circuit, a chemical process, or an industrial machine. • Design. In designing a structure or a product, the engineer selects methods, specifies materials, and determines shapes to satisfy technical requirements and to meet performance specification.  • Construction. The construction engineer is responsible for preparing the site, determining procedures that will economically and safely yield the desired quality, directing the placement of materials, and organizing the personnel and equipment. 

  9. Engineering Functions cont. • Production & maintenance. Plant layout and equipment selection, with consideration of human and economic factors, is the responsibility of the production engineer. He chooses processes and tools, integrates the flow of materials and components, and provides for testing and inspection.  • Operation. The operating engineer controls machines, plants, and organizations providing power, transportation, and communication. He determines procedures and supervises personnel to obtain reliable and economic operation of complex equipment.  • Management, and other functions. In industries, engineers analyze customer requirements, recommend units to satisfy needs economically, and resolve related problems. In some industries, too, engineers decide how assets are to be used.

  10. About Geospatial Engineering

  11. Definition of Geospatial Engineering • The professional discipline concerned with the measurement, analysis, and graphic representation of dimensional geo-spatial relationships, as well as with the design, construction, maintenance, and the use of geo-spatial databases. It has its roots in surveying and mapping and encompasses the specialisms of geodesy, surveying, topometry, hydrography, geoinformatics, and navigation.

  12. Why GeoSpatial Technology? • Reliable decision making in industry, science and society involving key economic, environmental and social issues requires high quality and relevant information of which much of that information has a spatial component (location on earth) that can be mapped or communicate where a person or object is located. • It requires an integrated approach to the sciences and technologies of measurement, mapping, analysis and visualization of information.

  13. Latest Developments • The modern developments in the areas of space technology, information technology, and communication technology have tremendously influenced how positioning, navigation and geospatial modelling are carried out today. • It is today widely recognised that the disciplines of measurement and mapping that were previously collected under the term Surveying (or Land Surveying) can no longer be adequately described by the term ‘Surveying’.

  14. Latest Developments Cont. • Satellite Positioning technology, especially theGlobal Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) – GPS, GLONASS etc • Geo-Information Systems (GIS) technology makes it possible to analyse and interpret geo-spatial phenomena through multidimensional computerised graphic presentations. • Remote sensing technology facilitated the application of advanced techniques in imagery and imaging systems in engineering and environmental analysis. • These technological developments have completely changed the face of the discipline. that has traditionally been known as Surveying.

  15. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM • GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS • satellites act as platforms for transmitting data • GPS • American space based positioning system • Joint Program Office (JPO) - 1973 • Purpose • Position • Velocity • Time anytime anywhere on or near earth’s surface 2012

  16. Single frequency receiver GPS Receivers • Single frequency receivers: Economical but compromises accuracy and reliability. Use Klobuchar model for ionospheric time delay correction. Sufficient for non-precision applications. • For precision applications including advanced research in the area of navigation one needs dual frequency receivers. Dual frequency receiver

  17. Other Universities offering Similar Program • University of New South Wales - Surveying and Spatial Information Systems • Curtin University of Technology – Spatial Sciences • University of Melbourne – Geomatics / Geomatics Engineering • Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University – Geospatial Sciences • University of Calgary – Geomatics Engineering • University of New Brunswick – Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering • York University (Canada) – Geomatics Engineering • University of Maine – Spatial Information Science and Engineering • Ohio State University – Geomatics Engineering • University College London – GeoSpatial and Environmental Information Management • University of Newcastle upon Tyne – Geomatics • University of Cape Town – Geomatics • JKUAT – Geomatic Engineering and Geospatial Information Systems • Kenya Polytechnic University College – various degrees • Kimathi