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Rhetorical Strategies & Notes. “Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men” —Plato . Review: .

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rhetorical strategies notes

Rhetorical Strategies & Notes

“Rhetoric is the art of ruling

the minds of men”

—Plato

review
Review:
  • Rhetorical Analysis: an examination of a text that utilizes rhetoric (the art of discourse: inform, motivate, or persuade) to analyze the interactions between a text, an author, and an audience.
    • Goal: articulate HOW the author writes, rather than WHAT they actually wrote. Discuss whether or not the author’s approach is successful.
    • NOT: a summary or saying whether or not you agree with the argument.
rhetorical strategies
Rhetorical Strategies:
  • Ethos, Logos, and Pathos

Note: Consider how the author uses these strategies to persuade you based on the purpose of the text.

logos
Logos
  • Greek for “word”
    • Focus on argument itself, not the person making it
    • Evidence (statistics, pictures, sources)
    • Logic and Reasoning
ethos
Ethos
  • Greek for “character”
    • Premise: we believe those whom we respect
    • Focuses on the speaker or writer, not the audience
    • The ethos: character, credibility, reliability
ethos continued
Ethos Continued
  • Character: Are you a good person?
    • Example: “I am a husband, a father, and a taxpayer. I’ve served faithfully for 20 years on the school board. I deserve your vote for city council.”
  • Credibility: remind others of the author’s illustrious past or qualifications
    • Examples:
      • Companies include “since 19—”
    • Colleges advertise famous/successful alumnae
  • Reliability: How does the audience know you’ll come through?
    • Example: On-Star commercials with “actual” recordings of distress calls
pathos
Pathos
  • Greek for “suffering” or “experience”
    • Appeals to emotions and values of the audience
  • Usually conveyed through narrative or story
    • Hot topics: children, animals, the elderly, the disadvantaged
  • Think: Is the writer simply “playing me”?
terms for the rhetorical analysis frame
Terms for the Rhetorical Analysis Frame

EXIGENCE

(What is bothering the writer?)

AUDIENCE

(Who is the writer addressing?)

PURPOSE

(What does the writer intend the reader to do after reading the text?)

LOGOS

(The Central Argument or structure of argument)

(Appeals)

ETHOS PATHOS

Appeal to character of the writer Appeals to emotions of the reader

1. Good sense

2. Good character

3. Good Will

ORGANIZATION/STRUCTURE/FORM

DICTION—SYNTAX—IMAGERY—FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

strong vs weak verbs
Strong vs. Weak Verbs
  • To help you move away from summary and toward ANALYSIS, you need to begin to incorporate strong verbs into your writing when discussing the writer’s rhetorical choices. Below is a list of verbs that are considered weak because they imply summary and a list of verbs that are considered strong because they imply analysis. Strive to use the stronger verbs in your essays to help push yourself away from summary and toward analysis:
    • “The writer flatters…” NOT “The writer says…”
weak verbs summary
Weak Verbs (Summary)
  • says
  • relates
  • goes on to say
  • tells
  • this quote shows explains
  • states
  • shows
strong verbs analysis
Strong Verbs (Analysis)
  • implies
  • trivializes
  • flatters
  • qualifies
  • processes
  • describes
  • suggests
  • denigrates
  • dismisses
  • analyzes
  • questions
  • compares
  • praises
  • supports
  • enumerates
  • contrasts
  • emphasizes
  • demonizes
  • establishes
  • admonishes
  • expounds
  • argues
  • defines
  • ridicules
  • minimizes
  • narrates
  • lists
  • warns
alternatives to show
Alternatives to “show”
  • Acknowledge
  • Address
  • Analyze
  • Apply
  • Argue
  • Assert
  • Augment
  • Broaden
  • Calculate
  • Capitalize
  • Characterize
  • Claim
  • Clarify
  • Compare
  • Complicate
  • Confine
  • Connect
  • Consider
  • Construct
  • Contradict
  • Correct
  • Create
  • Convince
  • Critique
  • Declare
  • Deduce
  • Defend
  • Demonstrate
  • Deny
  • Describe
  • Determine
  • Differentiate
  • Disagree
  • Discard
  • Discover
  • Discuss
  • Dismiss
  • Distinguish
  • Duplicate
  • Elaborate
  • Emphasize
  • Employ
alternatives to show continued
Alternatives to “show” continued
  • Enable
  • Engage
  • Enhance
  • Establish
  • Evaluate
  • Exacerbate
  • Examine
  • Exclude
  • Exhibit
  • Expand
  • Explain
  • Exploit
  • Express
  • Extend
  • Facilitate
  • Feature
  • Forecast
  • Formulate
  • Fracture
  • Generalize
  • Group
  • Guide
  • Hamper
  • Hypothesize
  • Identify
  • Illuminate
  • Illustrate
  • Impair
  • Implement
  • Implicate
  • Imply
  • Improve
  • Include
  • Incorporate
  • Indicate
  • Induce
  • Initiate
  • Inquire
  • Instigate
  • Integrate
  • Interpret
  • Intervene
  • Invert
  • Isolate
  • Justify
  • Locate
  • Loosen
  • Maintain
alternatives to show continued1
Alternatives to “show” continued
  • Manifest
  • Manipulate
  • Measure
  • Merge
  • Minimize
  • Modify
  • Monitor
  • Necessitate
  • Negate
  • Nullify
  • Obscure
  • Observe
  • Obtain
  • Offer
  • Omit
  • Optimize
  • Organize
  • Outline
  • Overstate
  • Persist
  • Point out
  • Possess
  • Predict
  • Present
  • Probe
  • Produce
  • Promote
  • Propose
  • Prove
  • Provide
  • Qualify
  • Quantify
  • Question
  • Realize
  • Recommend
  • Reconstruct
  • Redefine
  • Reduce
  • Refer
  • Reference
  • Refine
  • Reflect
  • Refute
  • Regard
  • Reject
alternatives to show continued2
Alternatives to “show” continued
  • Rely
  • Remove
  • Repair
  • Report
  • Represent
  • Resolve
  • Retrieve
  • Reveal
  • Revise
  • Separate
  • Shape
  • Signify
  • Simulate
  • Solve
  • Specify
  • Structure
  • Suggest
  • Summarize
  • Support
  • Suspend
  • Sustain
  • Tailor
  • Terminate
  • Testify
  • Theorize
  • Translate
  • Undermine
  • Understand
  • Unify
  • Utilize
  • Validate
  • Vary
  • View
  • Vindicate
  • Yield
diction
Diction
  • Diction is simply the words the writer chooses to convey a particular meaning.
  • When you are writing an essay in which you are analyzing the diction of the writer:
    • Avoid saying: “The writer used diction…” – since this is obvious (diction IS the words on the page; without them, the page would be blank).
    • Instead, say: “The writer creates a ______________ diction through the use of…” OR “The language of the text is ___________________.”
words to describe the type of diction
Words to describe the type of diction:
  • abstract
  • learned
  • literal
  • academic
  • loaded
  • ambiguous
  • lyrical
  • biting
  • melodious
  • bombastic
  • monosyllabic
  • brusque
  • nostalgic
  • obscene
  • casual
  • obscure
  • caustic
  • offensive
  • concrete
  • ordinary
  • colloquial
  • ornate
  • colorful
  • passionate
  • common
  • patriotic
  • connotative
  • pedantic
  • cultured
  • picturesque
  • crisp
  • plain
  • curt
words to describe the type of diction continued
Words to describe the type of diction continued:
  • poetic
  • political
  • detached
  • polysyllabic
  • divisive
  • precise
  • emotional
  • pretentious
  • provincial
  • euphemistic
  • romantic
  • euphonious
  • scholarly
  • everyday
  • sentimental
  • exact
  • shocking
  • fanciful
  • sincere
  • flowery
  • slang
  • figurative
  • subdued
  • folksy
  • symbolic
  • formal
  • tame
  • grandiose
  • technical
  • trite
  • inflammatory
  • unifying
  • inflated
  • uppity
  • informal
  • vague
  • insincere
  • vulgar
  • jargon
slide21
Tone
  • Tone is the writer’s attitude or feeling about the subject of his text.
  • When writing your essay, avoid saying: “The writer uses tone” since ALL writers use a tone of some kind.
  • Instead, say: “The writer creates a __________ tone…”
words to describe the type of tone
Words to describe the type of tone:
  • angry
  • sad
  • sentimental
  • bitter
  • sharp
  • cold
  • fanciful
  • dramatic
  • audacious
  • upset
  • urgent
  • complimentary
  • provocative
  • benevolent
  • silly
  • joking
  • condescending
  • tired
  • boring
  • poignant
  • sympathetic
  • proud
  • frivolous
  • afraid
  • detached
  • contemptuous
  • giddy
  • irreverent
  • happy
  • confused
words to describe the type of tone continued
Words to describe the type of tone continued:
  • apologetic
  • pitiful
  • seductive
  • hollow
  • childish
  • humorous
  • restrained
  • sweet
  • joyful
  • peaceful
  • horrific
  • somber
  • objective
  • allusive
  • mocking
  • sarcastic
  • candid
  • nostalgic
  • vexed
  • vibrant
  • zealous
  • dreamy
  • shocking
  • sarcastic
  • patriotic
  • serious
  • mocking
  • satiric
  • motivational
  • tactful
  • respectful
  • humorous

Source: http://sutterfield.weebly.com/unit-1-creative-non-fiction.html

grading criteria
Grading Criteria:
  • Copy the following to the bottom of your paper:
    • Corrections are made from the original paper.
    • MLA Formatting
    • Concise Writing: Be brief; do not write anything that does not support your point. Avoid the superfluous and repetitive.
    • Correct Grammar & Punctuation
    • Formal Writing
    • Use of Examples
    • Use of “strong” verbs and adjectives.
    • Questions are answered and ideas fully discussed
    • What is bothering Dickens?
      • What is the purpose of his writing?
      • What is the effect of his writing?
      • How does he accomplish this? (Logos, Pathos, or Ethos)
  • Due: Tuesday 19 February