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Globalization and the Geography of Networks. Chapter 14. Queen Victoria of England with the Globe behind her depicts the 19 th century wave of globalization. JVC a giant electronics firm symbolizes the current wave of globalization that began after World War II.

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Queen Victoria of England with the Globe behind her depicts the 19th century wave of globalization

JVC a giant electronics firm symbolizes the current wave of globalization that began after World War II

What are the goals of globalization
What are the Goals of Globalization? Globalization?

Depends on who you ask:

World Economic Forum – an annual meeting held in Davos, Switzerland. Participants typically:

- champion free trade

- represent large corporations

World social forum
World Social Forum Globalization?

Goal of the World Social Forum: Find alternatives to the decisions being made at the World Economic Forum. Participants are a network of anti-globalizationists.

What is globalization

A set of processes that are: Globalization?

increasing interactions

deepening relationships

heightening interdependence

without regard to

country borders.

A set of outcomes that are:

unevenly distributed

varying across scales

differently manifested

throughout the world.

What is Globalization?

Globalization Globalization?

Geographer Andrew Kirby explains that with globalization, we are living “not so much in a world without boundaries, or in a world without geography – but more literally, in a world, as opposed to a neighborhood or a region.”

Pro globalization argument
Pro-Globalization Argument Globalization?

  • The backbone of Globalization is trade.

  • Economists-Keith Maskus argues-free trade raise the well-being of all countries since they specialize in what they produce most efficiently.

  • Globalization promotes innovation and greater use of technology.

  • It has helped to open many closed political systems

  • It has broadened the horizons of many people world wide.

Anti globalization argument
Anti-Globalization Argument Globalization?

  • Increased the gap between the rich and poor countries as well as the rich and poor within countries.

  • Rich (core) countries impose their economic and cultural values on the periphery

  • Increased use of resources-adverse environmental impact

  • Eroded traditional methods of income and cultures

  • Increased some intercultural animosities.

Networks Globalization?

  • Manuel Castells defines networks as “a set of interconnected nodes” without a center.

  • The Networks

    • Financial

    • trade

    • Communication

    • Media

    • Kinship

    • Corporate

    • government

    • NGOs

    • Education

World Cities most Connected Globalization?

to New York City

This map shows the 30 world cities that are the most connected to New York City, as measured by flows in the service economy.

Time space compression
Time-Space Compression Globalization?

  • Global cities of the core are more connected with transportation and communication than cities of the periphery

  • Average Core states per 1,000 people have:

    • 507 telephones (mainlines)

    • 582 cell phones

    • 382.6 internet subscribers

  • Average Semi-Periphery states per 1,000 people have:

    • 111 telephones (mainlines)

    • 104 cell phones

    • 37.2 internet subscribers

  • Average Periphery states per 1,000 people have:

    • 11 telephones (mainlines)

    • 15 cell phones

    • 5.9 internet subscribers

At what scales do networks operate in the globalized world

At What Scales do Globalization?Networks Operate in the Globalized World?

Networks in development
Networks in Development Globalization?

  • Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) have created a web of global development networks.

    • Participatory Development – idea that locals should be engaged in deciding what development means for them and how to achieve it.

      • Gets back to “What is development and how do we measure it?”

Networks in development1
Networks in Development Globalization?

Local Currencies

A network of people exchanging services and products through a currency that holds meaning and value only to those participating in the network.

In Argentina (right), 5,000 different local currencies and barter clubs exist.

Networks in media
Networks in Media Globalization?

  • Vertical integration – a corporation that has ownership in a variety of points along the production and consumption of a commodity chain.

    • eg. Media Companies

      Goal is synergy, the cross promotion of

      vertically integrated goods.

Networks in media1
Networks in Media Globalization?

  • Post Cold War mergers Global Media is now owned by 6 global corporations: Time-Warner, Disney, Bertelsmann, Viacom, News Corporation and Vivendi Universal

  • Media competes for content, delivery & consumers

  • Through consolidations media companies own both the content (production of shows or films and the delivery systems (radio, television stations, movies)

Networks in media2
Networks in Media Globalization?


People or corporations who control access to information.

How does vertical integration of Media affect the number of gatekeepers?

How do weblogs affect the number of gatekeepers?

The geography of the internet
The Geography of the Internet Globalization?

  • The information superhighwayremains largely city bound

  • Leaves culture regions intact

  • Creates a new sort of “virtual” place

  • Can be used to maintain social and family ties

  • Use remains arrested at early phase of hierarchical diffusion

  • May “amplify disparities between regions”

Networks of retail corporations
Networks of Retail Corporations Globalization?

  • Horizontal integration – ownership by the same firm of a number of companies that exist at the same point on a commodity chain.

    • eg. The Gap (Banana Republic, Old Navy)

      Global retail corporations have more connections to the local around the world than global manufacturing corporations. Retail stores create a local presence.

How have identities changed in the globalized world

Key Question: Globalization?

How have Identities Changed in the Globalized World?

Identities in a globalized world
Identities in a Globalized World Globalization?

  • Identity – how we make sense of ourselves

    • We have identities at different scales.

    • Globalized networks interlink us with flows of information and global interaction.

    • In a globalized world, a growing number of people are “making sense of themselves” within the context of the globe.

Cultural interaction tourism
Cultural Interaction-Tourism Globalization?

  • Tourism-the largest industry in the world-second only to oil

  • Inequality between the visiting and the visited cultures-vast majority of tourists are from the core

  • Visits to the periphery or semi-periphery can be beneficial as well as detrimental

    • Profits versus authenticity

    • Who benefits? Locals or transnational corporations

Personal connectedness
Personal Connectedness Globalization?

  • When a tragedy occurs somewhere in the world, people have the desire to:

    • personalize it. E.g. 9/11 2004 Tsunami etc.

    • localize it. Local news broadcasts often emphasize the local connection

      In the process of personalizing and localizing a tragedy, a new global awareness can be created.

Personal connectedness1
Personal Connectedness Globalization?

  • When a death or tragedy happens, how do people choose a local space in which to express a personal and/or global sorrow?

    • Short term = spontaneous shrines

    • Longer term = permanent memorials-Oklahoma City bombing, World Trade Center 9/11, etc.

“By allowing individuals to share loss, tragedy, and sorrow with others, these places can sometimes allow people to build community and a sense of common purpose.” - Ken Foote

Landscapes of sorrow with others, these places can sometimes allow people to build community and a sense of common purpose.” - Ken FooteViolence and TragedyGeographer Ken Foote draws from extensive fieldwork to understand how Americans memorialize tragedy.Arlington National Cemetery (right) where thousands came to pay respects to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who had recently died.

The process of memorializing place
The Process of Memorializing Place sorrow with others, these places can sometimes allow people to build community and a sense of common purpose.” - Ken Foote

Whether and how quickly a place is memorialized depends on:

- funding

- debate over

what to build

- who to remember

- whether people

want to remember the site

The end
THE END sorrow with others, these places can sometimes allow people to build community and a sense of common purpose.” - Ken Foote