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Sergey Kullanda (Moscow) Dialectal traits and external relations of Scythian. Com. Iranian Scythian * d- , *- d - l ( except γd , nd clusters ) Παραλάται = авест. paraδāta- *xš- š/s- Σαιταφάρνης < *Xšaitafarna- * ś θ Σπαργαπείθης < * Spargapaiśa-

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Com. Iranian Scythian

*d-, *-d-l (exceptγd, ndclusters) Παραλάται

= авест. paraδāta-

*xš-š/s-Σαιταφάρνης < *Xšaitafarna-

*śθΣπαργαπείθης < *Spargapaiśa-

*h-∅-’Ατέας < *Hati̯a-, Αὐ-<*vahu-

(see below)

*-nt--d- (?)Μαδύης < *mantu-

*u̯-∅- (?)’Όρικος < *U̯arika-/U̯aryaka-

*xv-Ϝ- (?) *Ϝοιτόσυρος < *xvaitu-sūra-

*-xv- -χ- (?)Αὐ-χάται< *vahu-xvaitu-



Irregular correspondences implying (substratum?) borrowings:

West Iranian κτ (xt)- instead of East Iranian -γd-, cf. Ὀκταμασάδης, a Scythian king (Herod. IV 80);

s instead of θ < Common Iranian *ś, cf. *Ϝοιτόσυρος/Οἰτόσυρος/Γοιτόσυρος, a Scythiangod (Herod. IV 59);

Voiced stops instead of unvoiced and vice versa, as in Indo-European language posited by Holzer; cf. Ταβιτί, a Scythiangoddessidentified with Greek Hestia, goddess of the hearth and domestic life (Herod. IV 59), probably from IE *dh2p- ‘[to cook/apportion] sacrificial meal’.


*σανάπη/σάναπτις ‘drunkard’ in Scythian (in Ms σάναπτιν; Scaliger’s conjecture σανάπην).The first part, i.e. σανά- ‘wine’ (cf. Osseticsæn/sænæ ‘id.’), goes back to North Caucasian *swĭ̵nē ‘barberry; currants’ (Avarsaní ‘barberry’, Laksunū ‘pomegranate’, Adyghesāna ‘grapes, wine’,Kabardiansāna ‘wine’ – NCED: 971) and, judging from phonetics and semantics, is a West Caucasian loanword.The second part seemingly goes back to Indo-European root meaning ‘to drink’.


East Caucasian *u̯ĕlθi ‘felt,’ ‘felt cloak’ (Archi warti ‘felt cloak,’ Tabasaranverč ‘felt,’ Lak warsi ‘felt cloak,’ Chechenwerta‘felt cloak,’ etc. (Климов 1972: 54; Старостин 1988: 113) was borrowed from an Iranian language where *ś > θas in Old Persian and Scythian – cf. Avestanvarəsa- ‘hair,’ Old Indianválśa- ‘shoot, twig,’ Russian волос, etc. (Proto) Old Persian, however, borrowed the native name of Assyria, i.e. Aššur,as *Aśura, hence Old Persian Aθura. The Persianscould hardly render Akkadian -šš- directly as -θ-: they had for it such sounds as s andš. It seems likely therefore that East Caucasian word was borrowed from Scythian.