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Avian Influenza 101. Prepared by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health May 2006. Goals:. Understand differences in flu types Recognize relative risk Discuss food safety aspects Know how to handle dead birds. 3 Categories of Flu. Pandemic flu is NOT bird flu!. 3 Categories of Flu.

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avian influenza 101

Avian Influenza 101

Prepared by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health

May 2006

  • Understand differences in flu types
  • Recognize relative risk
  • Discuss food safety aspects
  • Know how to handle dead birds
3 categories of flu

3 Categories of Flu

Pandemic flu is NOT bird flu!

3 categories of flu1
3 Categories of Flu
  • Pandemic Flu
    • Does not currently exist
      • Warnings are based on predictions
    • An existing virus must mutate first
    • Human-to-human transmission
    • Predicted based on historical cycles
      • About 3 every century
3 categories of flu2
3 Categories of Flu
  • Avian Influenza H5N1
    • One strain of many
    • Most active in Asia
    • Has not been found in North America
3 categories of flu3
3 Categories of Flu
  • All other avian influenzas
    • Many other strains of the virus
    • May or may not have human health affects
      • Most do not
    • Considered a general economic, as well as health, threat to poultry industry
      • Routine flock testing by industry, USDA and Indiana State Board of Animal Health
what is avian flu

What Is Avian Flu?

Simple Answer: A Virus

avian influenza
Avian Influenza
  • Numerous subtypes
  • HxNx: 16 Hs and 9 Ns
    • Theoretically 144 combinations
    • Antigens on the virus surface
  • Few have human health impact
    • H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2
    • Most no more than conjunctivitis
avian influenza1
Avian Influenza
  • Why the concern about H5N1?
    • Unique transmission directly to people
      • Only with very close contact with birds
      • No sustained human-to-human transmission
    • Some similarities to 1918 strain
    • High death rate among reported cases
low path ai key facts
Low-Path AI: Key Facts
  • Does occur periodically in the U.S.
    • Naturally in wild bird populations
  • No known human health affects
  • Is not cause for fear
high path ai key facts
High Path AI: Key Facts
  • Not currently found in N. America
    • Texas, British Columbia: 2004
    • Pennsylvania: 1983-84
  • H5N1 currently not readily transmissible to humans
    • No sustained human-human spread
  • High death rate in birds
hpai clinical signs
HPAI: Clinical Signs
  • Sudden death without signs
  • Lack of energy, appetite
  • Reduced egg production
  • Swollen head, eyelids, comb, wattles
  • Discolored purple wattles, comb, legs
  • Nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing
  • Report cases to: 866-536-7593
what is our risk of h5n1

What is Our Risk of H5N1?

Indiana is not a high-risk state

h5n1 risk
H5N1 Risk
  • U.S. ban on trade with countries with HPAI infection
    • No live birds, eggs or poultry products
  • Most U.S. poultry raised indoors
    • High biosecurity in commercial flocks
  • Close bird contact is uncommon
    • In homes
h5n1 risk1
H5N1 Risk
  • Migratory birds
    • Waterfowl on international fly-ways
      • Nationwide testing of wild birds
      • Pacific rim/Alaska
    • Indiana is not on a major fly-way
    • Resident Canada geese are low risk
    • USDA, DNR targeted surveillance
can i get ai from eating eggs or poultry

Can I Get AI From Eating Eggs or Poultry?

AI is not a food safety threat

food safety
Food Safety
  • If properly handled, AI is no threat
    • Wash your hands when handling food
    • Clean all surfaces in contact with raw meat
    • Keep foods cold before and after cooking
    • Do not cross-contaminate
    • Cook poultry to 170 degrees F
      • Avian influenza virus is killed at 140 F
food safety1
Food Safety
  • Poultry products are inspected
    • Twice: before and after slaughter
  • Sick, dead birds are not processed
  • All flocks are tested for AI
    • Infected flocks are destroyed without entering the food chain
food supply safety
Food Supply Safety
  • U.S. agriculture is different
    • Commercial flocks raised indoors
    • Biosecurity prevents wild bird exposure
    • Poultry raised away from other species
    • Animals not kept in homes/close human contact
    • Flocks regularly tested for disease
      • 75,000+ birds in IN this year



food supply safety1
Food Supply Safety
  • U.S. food consumption is different
    • Healthy birds slaughtered under inspection
    • Cultural food preferences are lower risk
      • Thorough cooking
    • Live bird markets uncommon in U.S.
      • Birds are slaughtered on-the-spot
      • Indiana has banned traditional markets
birds die for lots of reasons
Birds Die for Lots of Reasons
  • Natural deaths
    • Predators, severe weather, short life span
  • Accidents
    • Impacts with power lines, aircraft, buildings
  • Toxicants
    • Legal & illegal pest control methods
    • Spoiled grain and dirty bird feeders
    • Environmental contamination
birds die for lots of reasons1
Birds Die for Lots of Reasons
  • Diseases
    • Most do not have human health affects!
  • West Nile virus
    • Blue jays, robins, crows, cardinals, raptors
      • Call your LOCAL health department
  • Avianinfluenza
    • Migratory geese, ducks, swans, shorebirds
      • Call Wildlife Conflicts Hotline 800-893-4116
tips for dead wild birds
Tips for Dead Wild Birds
  • Do not handle it
    • Treat it like dog poop!
    • Wear disposable gloves or place a plastic bag over your hand to pick it up
    • Place it in a plastic bag
    • Wash your hands afterward
  • Dispose of it in your garbage