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ESA ground antennas and their compatibility with the MORE experiment. R. Maddè, M. Mercolino ESA/ESOC. ESA deep space network. ESA deep space network consists of two stations New Norcia (NNO) DSA-1, operational since 2001, western Australia S- and X- band uplink and downlink capabilities

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esa ground antennas and their compatibility with the more experiment

ESA ground antennas and their compatibility with the MORE experiment

R. Maddè, M. Mercolino

ESA/ESOC

esa deep space network
ESA deep space network
  • ESA deep space network consists of two stations
    • New Norcia (NNO) DSA-1, operational since 2001, western Australia
      • S- and X- band uplink and downlink capabilities
      • Ka-band downlink optional (not yet taken)
      • Currently supporting Mars Express (MEX) and Rosetta
    • Cebreros (CEB) DSA-2, operational since 2005, Spain.
      • X- band uplink and downlink, Ka- band downlink capabilities
      • Ka-band uplink optional (not yet taken)
      • Currently supporting Venus Express (VEX)
      • Cebreros will be the station supporting BepiColombo
  • Future deep space station
    • DSA-3 mat be located in the southern hemisphere at American longitudes (Chile or Argentina)
      • X- band uplink and downlink (baseline), Ka- band downlink (optional)
detail of the back end rx side only
Ka-band D/C output BW: 220 MHz

X-band D/C output BW: 100 MHz

L-band D/C output BW: 30 MHz

3L-band D/Cs per station

3 IFMS per station (2 for TT&C and 1 for RSI)

Each input BW: 28 MHz

70 MHz

8400 – 8500

MHz

31800 – 32300

MHz

540-640 MHz

Switch

Switching

Matrix

X-band

D/C

L-band

D/C 1

RHC

RHC

IFMS1

LHC

LHC

C

F

E

GDSP

420-640 MHz

L-band

D/C 2

Ka-band

D/C

GDSP

UCPU

Test

Test

Estrack LAN

Detail of the back-end (Rx side only)
back end receiver ifms
IFMS characteristics

Input BW: 28 MHz (High-speed mode)

IF at 70MHz

CFE (common front end) samples at 280 Ms/s

Open loop capabilities

Sampling rate from 1kHz to 4MHz

Quantisation levels: 1,2,4,8,16 bits

Up to 4 channels per each DSP card

Ranging capabilities

Maximum ranging tone frequency at 1.5 MHz (as per ECSS and CCSDS standards)

Back end – Receiver (IFMS)
more requirements generals
MORE requirements (generals)
  • Unlike most scientific experiments mounted on ESA missions, MORE heavily involves both space and ground segment
  • Different requirement “levels” can be defined
  • PI “level 1” performance requirements are the “end-to-end” requirements
  • A set of “level 2” performance requirements has been prepared by the PI, with the intention to apportion them to the space and ground segments
  • Some “level 2” requirements are related to media calibration
more requirements level 2
MORE requirements (level 2)
  • MORE requirements can be split into four main areas:
    • Requirements on the needed multi-frequency link
    • Requirements on Doppler performance (all links)
      • Ka/Ka link: adev (1000 s) < 6*10-15
      • Other links: σX/X/ σKa/Ka=4; σX/Ka/ σKa/Ka=10
    • Requirements on media effects
      • Uncalibrated contribution adev (1000 s) < 1*10-14

(or 3*10-15 ??) (all media) for antenna elevation > 15 deg

    • Requirements on Ranging performance (all links)
      • Ka/Ka ranging calibration error shall be less then than 0.3 ns (1 σ, 1-w) over half a day (X/Ka and X/X: 1.5 ns)
      • Ka/Ka, X/X and X/Ka ranging signals shall be as defined in the SGICD (WBRS – either with tone or PN codes)
      • Question for PI: are “ageing” requirements intended for the Ground Segment as well?
current compatibility of more requirements with dsa
Current compatibility of MORE requirements with DSA
  • Need for a multi-frequency link
    • Imply a station Ka-band uplink upgrade (A in the next chart)
  • Requirements on Doppler performance (all links)
    • Imply the adev characterisation of the station on all links (B)
    • Imply the evaluation of the mechanical noise contribution (B)
  • Requirements on media calibration
    • Imply the use of an ad-hoc calibration system (which does not exist in ESA stations) (C)
  • Requirements on ranging performance
    • Imply the development, deployment and validation of a wide-band ranging processor (D)
    • Imply the development of a proper calibration strategy & the conduction of related test campaign (E)
implementation approach
Implementation approach

List of needed activities:

  • Ka-band transmission implementation
  • Assessment of ADEV performance of the station
  • Media calibration
  • WBRS (Wide band ranging) processor
  • Ranging calibration

Ancillary activities

F. Check station location accuracy

G. Extension of station baseband capabilities

ka band transmission
Ka-band transmission
  • What has been done
    • High stability Ka-band up- and down-conv. are available
    • Ka-band feed, mirrors and dichroic are in production
    • Development of a movable mirror, to squint Ka-Tx beam respect Ka-Rx beam, on going
  • What needs to be done
    • Development of the transmitter HPA
    • Production and procurement of 2 operational units
    • Installation of all Ka-band uplink elements in CEB
    • Test and validation campaign
    • Verification of the Ka-band uplink stability
assessment of adev performances of the station
Assessment of ADEV performances of the station
  • An end-to-end assessment on all the three links is required
  • What has been done
    • At station level, a tool has been developed to compute the ADEV of the station, given the measurements of each of the equipment (X/X link only)
    • ADEV characterisation has been performed in both NNO and CEB (not taking into account the antenna mechanical noise)
    • Development of system able to assess antenna mechanical noise (to be deployed and validated in a test antenna in Villafranca)
  • What needs to be done
    • Evaluate CEB mechanical noise
    • Evaluate overall adev of X/X link, once mechanical noise is known
    • Evaluate overall adev of X/Ka link, once mechanical noise is known
    • Evaluate overall adev of the Ka/Ka link, once the antenna is upgraded
measured adev performances
Measured ADEV performances

Measured Ka-band UC ADEV < 1*10-16

measured adev performances1
Measured ADEV performances

Measured Ka-band DC ADEV of 1*10-16

measured adev performances ceb x x
Measured ADEV performances (CEB X/X)

The MORE X/X adev requirement is 2.4*10-14 @ 1000 s

media calibration
Media calibration
  • The effect of dispersive media will be almost totally cancelled by means of the multifrequency link
  • Requirements on the level at which troposphere effects have to be calibrated have to be frozen
  • The current requirements are not enough to define the needed system
  • There is the need to define the system in terms of
    • Technical performance
    • Station interfaces
    • Interfaces to the final user
  • What has been done
    • Nothing
  • What needs to be done
    • Study and assessment of technical specification of the needed media calibration system
    • Development and procurement of the operational system
    • Installation, testing and long term calibration of the operational system
wbrs processor
WBRS processor
  • Both the proposed MORE ranging systems (with tone at 20MHz or using PN codes) require the development of a new TT&C platform
  • This platform shall anyhow be developed due to obsolescence of the current IFMS (in operation since 2001)
  • What has been done
    • Nothing
  • What needs to be done
    • Study on new wide-band TT&C processor
    • New wide-band TT&C processor development
    • New wide-band TT&C processor procurement
    • Procurement of operational units
    • Installation and test of new TT&C processor in CEB
ranging calibrations
Ranging calibrations
  • Requirements on ranging calibration need some further clarifications
  • ESA has never faced requirements on ranging calibration so stringent. Therefore, ranging calibration achievable accuracies have to be further characterised
  • What has been done
    • Some preliminary test campaigns on the existing links (X/X, X/Ka)
  • What needs to be done
    • Requirement analysis and test with the current available equipment
    • Based on the outputs of the characterisation of the current ranging calibration system, one may consider further activities (if needed – i.e. On-line ranging calibration)
check station location
Check station location
  • The ADEV contribution due to the uncertainty of the station location is required to be less than 1.2*10-15 @ 1000 s. This means a sub-centimetre accuracy (0.9 cm) in the station location.
  • The declared accuracy of ESA deep space antennas is in the order of 1-2 cm over short time periods.
  • Over long time periods, the effect of the tectonics movement must be taken into account.
  • Too little data available to characterise the tectonics movement in CEB.
  • A survey using DDOR/VLBI techniques for evaluating the station coordinates may be considered. This possibility is at the moment TBD.
extension of station baseband capabilities
Extension of station baseband capabilities
  • The advent of a new ranging processor has high impact on baseband station integration
  • The number of receiving/transmitting chains (and related connectivity to the RF equipment) shall be reviewed, depending upon the final mission operational requirements
  • Once this is clear, and the new processor produced, an upgrade of the baseband configuration shall take place
schedule assumptions
Schedule assumptions
  • The main assumption is to have the station ready 6 months before launch
  • Launch is currently scheduled for August 2013
  • It has to be noted that the station is operational, and would require major upgrade (i.e. a considerable down-time)
  •  In order to minimise operational impacts, all integration activities shall be grouped in the same time period
costs
Costs
  • This presentation does not talk about costs
  • It just shows how MORE needs can be mapped in the existing ESA infrastructure
  • However, it has to be noted that:
    • All that has been mentioned under “what has been done” has been covered by ESA
    • Most of what has been mentioned under “needs to be done” is currently not financed
  • The PI is invited to acknowledge the above-presented current status
final remarks
Final remarks
  • ESA CEB station would welcome to host the ground segment of the MORE experiments
  • CEB is an operational station, used to support several missions. Therefore:
    • Station configuration is ruled by ESA
    • Station operation is restricted to ESA
    • Interfacing to experiment data has to be done through ESA
  • CEB station will provide in any case routine operations to the BC mission