Chapter Four Greece
Aegean Civilization • Minoan Culture -- Crete (2) Mycenaean Greece -- Mycenae: home of King Agmemnon
Minoans (lived on Crete) Basic Greek Timeline Mycenaeans (mainland) Dorians – invaders (dark age) ~ 2500 BCE Ionians – “the Greeks” (brought back Mycenaean elements) 338 BCE
Minoan Civilization • 2000-1400 B.C.E. • King Minos’s “sea empire” • The palace at Knossos
Daedalus, in Greek mythology, the Athenian craftsman, architect and inventor who designed for King Minos of Crete the labyrinth in which was imprisoned the Minotaur, a man-eating monster that was half man and half bull. The labyrinth was so skilfully designed that no one could escape from the maze or the Minotaur. • http://www.daedalus.gr/DAEI/THEME/Knossos.htm
Illustration of the Palace of Knossos http://arapahoe.littletonpublicschools.net/Portals/7/Social%20Studies/Crosby/WesternCiv/Unit1/Unit%201.8%20Palace%20PPT.ppt
Palace at Knossos http://jade.ccccd.edu/Andrade/WorldLitI2332/Mino/minos.jpg
The Queen's megaron, Palace of Minos, Knossos, c. 1600-1400 B.C.E. Vanni/Art Resource, NY.
View of the "throne room," palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete, with a heavily restored fresco depicted griffins. Vanni/Art Resource, NY.
Minoan Fresco : bull leaping http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/img/minos_toreador.jpg
Boxing Children, from Akrotiri, Thera, c. 1650-1500 B.C.E. Fresco, 9' x 3' 1" high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
Crocus Gatherer, from Thera, pre-1500 B.C.E. Fresco, appox. 35" x 32". National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Archaeological Society at Athens.
Blue Bird. Fresco from Knossos. Late Minoan IA, 1550 BC. http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/minoanpainting3.html
Octopus Vase, from Palaikastro, Crete, c. 1500 B.C.E. 11" high. Archaeological Museum, Herakleion, Crete. Scala/Art Resource, NY.
“The Minoans seem to have been the first ancient culture to produce art for its beauty rather than its function. . . . Art in Mesopotamia and Persia served political and religious purposes; while compelling and aesthetically very sophisticated, the art served a larger purpose. The Minoans, however, not only decorated their palaces, they decorated them with art; they used art for pleasure. . . . Minoan art frequently involves unimportant, trivial details of everyday life . . . (rather than battles, or political events and leaders, and so on).” • http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MINOA/MINOA.HTM
“This, perhaps, is the greatest Minoan legacy on the Greek world, for the great revolution in Greek art involves precisely this idea of producing art for pleasure only, that is, a purely aesthetic purpose for art: ‘art for art's sake.’ ” • http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MINOA/MINOA.HTM
The Mycenaeans • 1600-1200 B.C.E. • Time of Homer’s epics • Home of Agamemnon (conqueror of Troy)
"Goddess," from the citadel of Mycenae, c. 1200 B.C.E. Fresco. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Scala/Art Resource, NY. http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/mycptg1.html
The so-called Orpheus fresco from the Throne Room. Palace of Nestor at Pylos, 1300-1250 BC. http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/mycptg3.html
The Mask of Agamemnon http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/worldhis/figure11.jpg
Rhyton in the shape of a lion's head, from Mycenae, c. 1550 B.C.E. Gold, height 8". National Museum, Athens. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY.
Lion Gate,1300-1250 BC http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/framesetmycenaen.html
A fortified citadel http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/framesetmycenaen.html
The Heroic (Homeric) Age (1200-750 B.C.E.) • Archaic Greece (750-480 B.C.E.) • 750-650 BC Oligarchical • 650-480 BC Tyrants • Athenian Democracy (480-430 B.C.E.)
The Heroic Age (ca. 1200-750 BCE)
Homer • Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey. • Depicted the emergence of aristocrats. • Competition between aristocratic households led to hero cults, such as Achilles and Odysseus.
Archaic Greece (ca.750-480 BCE)
Rise of the Polis • 750 BCE • Each polis (city-state) was organized around a political and social urban center.
Colonization • Expansion of the Greek world • Magna Graecia • Hellenism (Hellenes = Greeks) • Panhellenism (all + Greeks) • Oracle of Delphi • Games at Olympia (776 B.C.E.)
The Persian Wars • The Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE) • The Battle of Marathon(490 BCE)--the Athenians won without Spartans’ help • The Battle of Salamis (480-479 BCE)– Athens rises to the forefront of Greek culture because of victory over Xerxes (Persia)
The Golden Age (ca. 480-430 BCE)
Solon’s Reform • c. 640-559 B.C.E. • Set up courts with citizen juries • Eligibility for political office based on property not birth • citizen assembly: landowning males over 18 would participate.
Pericles (ca. 495-429 BCE) • Democratic reforms The Assembly: central power of the state, consisting of all the free-born (no freed slaves) male citizens • Public buildings—public confidence •Glorified Athens’ democracy in his famous Funeral Speech
Pericles • The Athenian Empire: taking control of the Delian League • Anti-Spartan foreign policy • Advocated territorial expansion, a policy that eventually led to the Peloponnesian Wars.
Sparta • A society organized for war • Dual monarchy + an oligarchy of five officials • Relied on helots(enslaved Messenians) for food and manual labor • Population: helots : Spartiate = 10 : 1 • 640 BC revolt of helots
The Peloponnesian War • Trigger: Athenian control of the Delian League • 454 BCE Athens moved the treasury from Delos to Athens and began to keep 1/6 of all the revenue • The Delian League became the Athenian Empire. • 431- 404 BCE—27 years • Sparta defeated Athens.
Aftermath • 30 tyrants in Athens • War brought demoralization and a questioning of former certainties • Shows the limitation of the polis system?
The Hellenic Age (800 BCE - 323 BCE) • The Hellenistic Age (323 BCE - 30 BCE) • The Greco-Roman Age (30 BCE - 476 CE)