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Alex Litzau, Zach Reynolds, Luke Westbrook,. Chief. Joseph. Chief Joseph. Joseph’s father was converted to christianity by white missionaries. Joseph became chief of the Nez Perc é Indians in 1871 after his father died.

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chief joseph
Chief Joseph
  • Joseph’s father was converted to christianity by white missionaries.
  • Joseph became chief of the Nez Percé Indians in 1871 after his father died.
  • Being educated in a mission school, Joseph was one of the only Indians that could read and write.
historical background
Historical Background
  • White settlers’ desire for more cattle ranges and the discovery of gold caused the Nez Percé war.
  • A treaty pressured them to move from their homeland to a much smaller reservation in 1863.
historical background1
Historical Background
  • The Indians agreed to move, but soon faced raids.
  • They moved from Oregon to Montana, fighting against the U.S. Army.
  • In 1877, Chief Joseph surrendered at Bear’s Paw Mountains.
historical background2
Historical Background
  • Chief Joseph gave his surrender speech, and the Nez Percé were forced onto a reservation.
  • Eloquent speech was an important quality to Native Americans because traditions and legends were passed down orally.
the surrender speech of chief joseph
The Surrender Speech of Chief Joseph
  • Chief Joseph says that he is tired of fighting and “will fight no more forever”.
  • He expresses his sadness.
  • He mentions that many chiefs are dead, and he wants to look for his missing people.
an indian s views of indian affairs
An Indian’s Views of Indian Affairs
  • A magazine article by Joseph two years after surrender.
  • Joseph wants whites to see Indians as civilized people, not animals or savages.
  • He mentions the Indian's morals and laws by which they live.
  • He also talks about the Nez Percé religion, which has beliefs about afterlife that are similar to Christianity.
literary devices
Literary Devices
  • Repitition in Surrender Speech:
    • “…is dead…is dead…are dead.”
    • “Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired. My heart is sad and sick…Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired; my heart is sick and sad.”
  • Personification in Surrender Speech:
    • “From where the sun now stands…”
the impact
The Impact
  • “The Surrender Speech of Chief Joseph” reflected the times.
  • It came as a result of white settlers taking Native American land, a characteristic of the time period.
the impact1
The Impact
  • “An Indian’s Views of Indian Affairs” shaped the times.
  • Most white settlers viewed Native Americans very poorly.
  • The article, written from an Indian’s view point, showed whites that Native Americans are moral, respectable people, not animals.
  • This shaped public opinion.
importance to american literature
Importance to American Literature
  • These works showed a side of Native Americans that was rarely seen.
  • Native Americans were no longer viewed as savage, uneducated brutes.
  • This was a very enlightening point of view.