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Coherence. To stick together. Making ideas flow smoothly and clearly. And making the reader understand. . Blue Bubbles. What Is Coherence?. means "to stick together." All the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence.

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blue bubbles

Coherence

To stick together.

Making ideas flow smoothly and clearly.

And making the reader understand.

Blue Bubbles

what is coherence
What Is Coherence?
  • means "to stick together."
  • All the ideas in a paragraph flow smoothly from one sentence to the next sentence.
  • With coherence, the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express.
before build up coherence
Before Build Up Coherence
    • Is there a working thesis statement in your essay already?

Thesis statement is first priority. Without a working thesis statement, you are lost.

  • Did you develop clear relationships of ideas yet?

Check your outline first, does it fit your topic? Is it organized? Is it logical?

If not, re-read the topic and revise the outline.

  • Are there enough specific evidences that support your points?

All yes?

Congratulation! You can move on >>

how can we create coherence
How Can We Create Coherence

Coherence itself is the product of two factors

  • Sentence Cohesion
  • Paragraph Unity
sentence cohesion
Sentence Cohesion

Sentence Cohesion:

to achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next,

consider following techniques

  • Repetition
  • Synonymy
  • Pronoun Reference
  • Parallelism
  • Transitions (Connectors)
repetition sentence cohesion
Repetition - Sentence Cohesion

Repeat key words and phrases.

Example 1

The problem with contemporary art is that is not easily understood by most people. Contemporary art is deliberately abstract, and that means it leaves viewers wondering what they are looking at.

Example 2

You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time. (Abraham Lincoln)

synonymy sentence cohesion
Synonymy- Sentence Cohesion

If direct repetition is too obvious,

use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat.

Example 1

He appeared so thankful to all the staff, thankful to all of

the parents, and especially thankful to his students.

He appeared so thankful to all the staff, grateful to all of

the parents, and especially appreciative towards his

students.

pronoun reference sentence cohesion
PronounReference- Sentence Cohesion
  • Use pronoun to make explicit referenceback to aform mentioned earlier.
  • Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text. Thus, the pronoun causes the reader to sum up, quickly and subconsciously, what was said before, then the reader going on to the next part.
pronoun reference sentence cohesion10
PronounReference- Sentence Cohesion

Example 1

While the commuters were driving home, they saw the highway buckle. Immediately they began pulling over to stop. Within moments they realized an earthquake had struck their city, San Francisco.

pronoun reference sentence cohesion11
PronounReference- Sentence Cohesion

Example 2

When scientific experiments do not work out as expected, they are often considered failures until some other scientist tries them again. Those that work out better the second time around are the ones that promise the most rewards.

parallelism sentence cohesion
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion
  • Repeat a sentence structure.
  • A successful parallel sentence reads smoothly, while a faulty parallel sentence lurches awkwardly.
  • Actually, when we do our outline, we are using parallelism.
parallelism sentence cohesion13
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion

Example 1

I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully, hard work and marrying a rich woman.

I acquired my considerable fortune by investing carefully, working hard and marrying a rich woman.

parallelism sentence cohesion14
Parallelism- Sentence Cohesion

Example 2 : Repetition+ Parallelism

… ask not what your country can do for you,

ask what you can do for your country.(John F. Kennedy)

transitions sentence cohesion
Transitions - Sentence Cohesion
  • Linksentences with particular logical relationships.
  • They link your sentences and paragraphs together smoothly so that there are no abrupt jumps or breaks between ideas.
  • Indicate to the reader the order and flow of your writing and ideas. They strengthen the internal cohesion of your writing.
  • Using transitions makes it easier for the reader to follow your ideas. They help carry over a thought from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, or from one idea to another.
transitions sentence cohesion16
Transitions - Sentence Cohesion

Example

My morning routine never changes. My alarm clock rings for the third time. I get up. I sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower for ten minutes. I am finally awake. I get dressed. I got to the kitchen, make a cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the toaster. I eat breakfast and feed my cat. I put her outside. I am ready to face the world. I get on the bus and go to school. My first class begins, I go back to sleep.

My morning routine never changes. When my alarm clock rings for the third time, I get up and sleepwalk to the shower. I stand in the shower for ten minutes until I am finally awake. Then I get dressed. Next, I got to the kitchen, make a cup of tea and put a slice of bread in the toaster. After I eat breakfast and feed my cat, I put her outside. Finally, I am ready to face the world, so I get on the bus and go to school. As soon as my first class begins, I go back to sleep

how can we create coherence18
How Can We Create Coherence

Coherence itself is the product of two factors:

  • Sentence Cohesion
  • Paragraph Unity
paragraph unity
Paragraph Unity
  • Coherence is necessary.
  • Unity without coherence results in

a second-class paragraph.

paragraph unity20
Paragraph Unity
    • An essay focus on one overall theme.
  • Each paragraph is about ONLY ONE main idea.
  • All the sentences
    • topic sentence
    • supporting sentences
    • detail sentences
    • (sometimes) the concluding sentence

are all telling the reader about ONE main idea.

Topic Sentence

This is an essay

Supporting

Sentences

1st paragraph

Introduction + Thesis Statement

2nd paragraph

One main idea

3rd paragraph

The anther idea

Concluding Sentence

Concluding paragraph

Sum up your ideas

paragraph unity21
Paragraph Unity

San Francisco is one of the perfect places to spend a vacation. First of all, it is a beautiful city. From the top of its hills, the views of the sparkling blue water of San Francisco Bay and the green hills beyond are spectacular. Second, San Francisco has many excellent restaurants. With hundreds of restaurants serving delicious food from every part of the world, the city is truly a food-lover’s paradise. San Francisco is also fun. Riding a cable car down one of the city’s steep hills, eating a seafood cocktail at Fisherman’s Wharf, window-shopping in Cinatown, or walking across the famous Golden Gate Bridge are just a few of the activities on every visitor’s “must-do” list.

Topic Sentence

Supporting

Sentences

Concluding Sentence

review
Review
  • What is Coherence?

Making ideas flow smoothly and clearly.

And making the reader understand.

Sentence Cohesion + Paragraph Unity

  • How to create Coherence?

Repetition

Synonymy

Pronoun Reference

Parallelism

Transitions (Connectors)

Unity

reference
Reference
  • Ann Hougue (2003).The Essentials of English: A Writer’s edition, Pearson Education
  • Azar, Betty Schrampfer (1999). Understanding and using English grammar. 3rd ed. NY: Pearson Education
  • Zemach, Dorothy. E. & Rumisek, Lisa A. (2003). College Writing: From Paragraph to Essay. Oxford: Macmillan.
  • http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/fwalters/cohere.html (point by point) (pithy)
  • http://hospitality.hud.ac.uk/studyskills/writing/index.htm (Repetition)
  • http://web.uvic.ca/wguide/Pages/SentParallel.html (Parallelism)
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_parallel.html (Parallel Structure)
  • http://more.headroyce.org/research/writing/techniques/transsignals11.html (Transition Signals)
  • http://www.uwf.edu/writelab/handouts/paragraphcoherence.pdf (Paragraph Coherence Writing Lab 2003)
slide24

Q&A

Q&A