Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
National SeriesLecture 1IntroductionKyrgyzstan Bradford Disarmament Research CentreDivision of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK Picture Image Transparent Globe by digitalart- from: http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
Outline • Where we are in the early 21st century • Outline of the following lectures • What we should know(learning outcome) • What we can do(policy contribution) Picture Image: Golden World In Hands by jscreationzs- from: http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
What is “Life Science”? “Any field of science that is leading to or has the potential to lead to an enhanced understanding of living organisms, especially human life.” E.g. Biology, proteomics, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, aerosol technology, chemistry and mathematics (National Research Council, 2006: 27) • Applied in: • Public health, Medicine, Agriculture, Energy, Environment and National security studies
Biotechnology: An integral part of national strategy in the 21st Century A growing market in Biotechnology: the pharmaceutical market (National Research Council, 2006: 85) • Similar results in number of researchers and the amount of private investment for R&D in the life sciences • Rapid growth in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East • (Ernst&Young 2011, Frost&Sullivan 2010)
Kyrgyzstan: National Academy of Sciences Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences (official name National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan), originally part of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, was established as an independent entity by government decree in December 1993. (NASKR 2012)
Kyrgyzstan: Life science outlook National Academy of Science has to perform the following important tasks: • To advance basic researches and obtain new knowledge on nature and society; • To converse new opportunities into really needed knowledge, technology and products in Kyrgyzstan and competitive in the world; • To build and establish basics for development of strategic sectors and public processes in the country; • To secure innovation growth by integrating effectively a science, production and vocational education. (NASKR 2012)
Kyrgyzstan: National Academy of Science Institute of Biotechnology, working on the: • Creation of genetic resource bank of plants, livestock and microorganisms. • Development of vaccines and other biological defense technology to protect farm animals against infectious and special danger diseases. • Creation and maintenance of a collection of manufacturing strains and microorganisms. • Research of natural nidality of infectious diseases common for humans and livestock. • Research and development of the technology for obtaining bioactive substance (BAS) for iodine-iron deficiency prophylaxis.
Kyrgyzstan: National Academy of Science Institute of Medical Problems, working on: • Diseases prevention measures and maintenance of human physiological balances in mountains environment as well as in bad ecological conditions and pathology. • Preservation of genetic human resources. • Development and introduction of import-substituting and export-oriented technologies in pharmacology and medicine. • Different types of medicinal tea (hepatitic, vitamin, choleretic, hypotensive, nephritic), tinctures (golden root, nut etc.), vitamin concentrates, medicinal oils (rosehip, sea-buckthorn), ointments, concentrates, food additives obtained from local herbs of ecologically pure zones of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan: National Academy of Science Collaboration with the International Science and Technology Center(ISTC) Institute of Biochemistry & Physiology, National Academy of Science of Kirgizstan • STC Projects, including:KR-1101: Anthrax Agents in Kyrgyzstan, • KR-1133: Sheep Pox Vaccine, • Kr-1154.2: Kyrgyz Center for Infectious Diseases, • KR-1406: Maintenance of the Collection of Microorganisms, • KR-1610: Biochips in the Diagnostic of Emerging Infectious Zoonotic Diseases, KR-1632: Pollution of Kyrgyzstan by Anthrax Agents, • KR-1768: Regulations on Biosafety in Kyrgyzstan,
International Conference First International Biology Conference in Kyrgyzstan • First International Biology Congress in Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Manas University (KTMU) by the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science campus conference halls ChingizAitmatov was held on 24-27 September 2012. • The aim of the congress in the world that has become more and more important with each passing day that works in all areas of biological sciences of biology, agriculture, veterinary medicine, medicine, and presented the results of their latest research colleagues in various fields such as food. • The program of the First International Biology Congress in Kyrgyzstan, 6 invited speaker, Oral Presentation of the 198 pieces and Poster Presentation of 161 pieces of eight different sections, for a total of 359 papers are presented.
International Collaboration Kyrgyzstan National Academy of Sciences and Emerging Pathogens Institute (University of Florida) • “The SEER Lab [of the University of Florida) has partnered with the Department of Emerging Bacterial Infections, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research to provide the Kyrgyz Institute of Biotechnology, a part of the Kyrgyz National Academy of Sciences, with a two-week workshop on molecular pathogen characterization and phylogenetics/phylogeography.” • “Funded by WRAIR through the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency, participants will work with SEER Lab and WRAIR trainers to learn PCR and genotyping techniques that will enhance the diagnostic and strain characterization capacity of the IBT and strengthen ongoing collaborative projects between the SEER Lab and IBT.”
Nanotechnology in Kyrgyzstan Nanotechnology Now (3 October 2007) • The Nanotechnologies Development Board in Kyrgyzstan was established and vice prime-minister of Kyrgyz Republic DosbolNuruulu held its first meeting on October 3 , informs KABAR. During the meeting, the current state of nanotechnologies in Kyrgyzstan was discussed. It was decided, that the interested ministries should prepare proposals for development of such technologies. • No doubt that nanoscience and nanotechnologies have become one of the perspective areas of science, industry, and business. However, it requires not only significant financial and intellectual resources, which only rich developed countries can afford, but also a good basis of fundamental science and research.
Life Science: Laboratories “Kyrgyzstan needs a biological laboratory to ensure biological security” • “To ensure biological security Kyrgyzstan needs a biological laboratory,” the president of the National Academy of Sciences of the KRG SharipaZhorobekova declared today at the press conference. • According to her, a fuss around the construction of the biological laboratory in Bishkek was raised artificially. “In mass media there are opinions of ignorant people giving wrong information. So already the third laboratory is being constructed in Almaty, in Dushanbe a similar object is going to be built near the residence of the head of state. There people understand that the existence of such institute will be of a great benefit to the country. But we have not yet decided,” said SharipaZhorobekova. (Marchenko, 2011)
Why do we care? Should this be an issue for us? The dual-use nature of science and technology: • “Every major technology — metallurgy, explosives, internal combustion, aviation, electronics, nuclear energy — has been intensively exploited, not only for peaceful purposes but also for hostile ones.” • “…Must this also happen with biotechnology, certain to be a dominant technology of the twenty-first century?” Matthew Meselson: Professor of Molecular Biology at Harvard University (Meselson, 2000: 16)
Meselson’s Forecast in 2000 Ability • “Our ability to modify fundamental life processes continues its rapid advance” • “We will be able not only to devise additional ways to destroy life but will also become able to manipulate it” Dilemma • “…[This has a] Vast potential for beneficial application and could have inimical consequences for the course of civilization.”
Meselson’s Forecast in 2000 “At present, we appear to be approaching a crossroads —a time that will test whether biotechnology…” • Will come to be intensively exploited for hostile purposes, or • Our species will find the collective wisdom to take a different course.
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)1972 Article I • “Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain: • 1. Microbial or other biological agents or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes.” • This applies not only to states but also to non-state actors
Science and Security: Dual-Use The need for a broader conceptualisation of dual-use • Biological agents and toxins can be used for hostile purposes withoutweaponization and technology is typically diffused globally for peaceful purposes • Hostile use can take the form of criminal acts or terrorist acts (non-state level) in parallel to military application (state level), • The BTWC prohibits the misuse of the life sciences by both states and non-state actors
Kyrgyzstanand international regimes WMD • Kyrgyzstan does not possess nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons programs, and is a member of relevant nonproliferation treaties and organizations. Kyrgyzstan inherited a large uranium mining and milling complex and several military-related industrial facilities when the Soviet Union collapsed. BTWC • Accession (15 November 2004) CWC • Accession (29 October 2003) (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2012)
National Series: Lecture Outline 2.Biosecurity Threats 3. The Web of Prevention 4. National Measures 5. Responsibility of Scientists Picture Image: Transparent Globe by digitalart- from: http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/
Reviewing threats (Lecture 2) • ‘No single focal point’ of threats • Potential actors, material and information, which can be related to dual-use issues, exist at international, regional, national, local and individual levels. Natural outbreaks of infectious disease Safety/accidental risks at laboratories Manmade threats: warfare, crime and terrorism Unpredictable future of the life sciences
The Web of Prevention (WoP) (Lecture 3) To address natural outbreaks of infectious disease • Public health preparedness and response planning To address safety/accidental risks • Laboratory regulations to safely manage dangerous pathogens and toxins, to prevent an accidental release into the environment and unauthorized access To address manmade threats • Strong international arms control agreements with effective national implementation • Internationally coordinated export controls • Intelligence • Biodefense To address the unpredictable future of the life sciences • Oversight: Review of security-sensitive science and technology developments • Responsible conduct in research through education
Natural threats Safety risks Manmade threats Governance of science
National implementation (Lecture 4) To National Context
Worldwide engagement of life scientists with the WoP will: Effectively strengthen biosecurity measures by requiring the engagement of practicing scientists Prevent unnecessary restriction of scientific freedoms The need for responsible conduct in research(Lecture 5) • Engagement of informed life scientists about biosecurity issues is key to successful security • Education of, and capacity building among, scientists on biosecurity issues is necessary for successful security • Uninformed scientists = no effective science policy inputs to the WoP
Biosecurity: Definition issues The term “biosecurity” has been conceptualised differently across various scientific and professional disciplines • Areas: The term has been used in ecology, agriculture, food supply, arms control and public health contexts, with different meanings and conceptualisations • Policy processes: these overlap with interdisciplinary areas such as biosafety, counter-terrorism, agricultural biosecurity and biodiversity • Linguistic: In addition to these conceptual complications, “biosecurity” has also experienced linguistic complications (Fidler and Gostin 2007, Sunshine Project 2003, Barletta 2002)
References • The references cited in this lecture are viewable in the Notes section of this presentation.