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Heat Exchangers Design and Construction. By kamal Nashar. Introduction:. Shell and tube heat exchangers are one of the most common equipment found in all plants. How it works?. What are they used for?. Classification according to service. Heat Exchanger.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Shell and tube heat exchangers are one of the most common equipment found in all plants
  • How it works?
what are they used for
What are they used for?
  • Classification according to service .
  • Heat Exchanger

Both sides single phase and process stream

  • Cooler

One stream process fluid and the other cooling water or air

  • Heater

One stream process fluid and heating utility as steam

  • Condenser

One stream condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air

  • Reboiler

One stream bottom stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility

or process stream

design codes
Design codes:
  • Code

Is recommended method of doing something


  • Standard

is the degree of excellence required

  • API 660-ASME B16.5–ASME B36.10M–ASME B36.19-ASME B16.9–ASME B16.11
  • Specifications
  • Is a detailed description of construction, materials,… etc
  • Contractor or Owner specifications
main components
Main Components

1- Channel Cover

8- Shell

2- Channel

9- Baffles

3- Channel Flange

10- Floating Head backing Device

4- Pass Partition

11- Floating Tubesheet

5- Stationary Tubesheet

12- Floating Head

6- Shell Flange

13- Floating Head Flange

7- Tube

14 –Shell Cover

tema heat exchanger1
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Front Head Type

A - Type

B - Type

C - Type

tema heat exchanger2
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Shell Type

E - Type

F - Type

J - Type

K - Type

tema heat exchanger3
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Rear End Head Types

M - Type

S - Type

T - Type

Fixed Tubesheet

Floating Head

Pull-Through Floating Head

  • U-Tube Heat Exchanger
  • Fixed Tubesheet Heat Exchanger
  • Floating Tubesheet Heat exchanger
heat exchangers mechanical design
Heat Exchangers Mechanical Design
  • Terminology
  • Design data
  • Material selection
  • Codes overview
  • Sample calculations
  • Hydrostatic test
  • Sample drawing
  • ASME
  • TEMA
  • API
  • MAWP
  • MDMT
  • PWHT
  • NPS – DN – NB – NPT
  • Sch - BWG
design data
Design Data
  • Heat Exchanger Data Sheet :
  • TEMA type
  • Design pressure
  • Design temperature
  • Dimensions / passes
  • Tubes ( dimensions, pattern)
  • Nozzles & Connections
  • Baffles (No. & Type)
  • A – Yield Strength




  • B – Tensile Strength
  • C – Rupture point
  • Creep Strength

a slow plastic strain increased by time and temperature (time and temperature dependant) for stressed materials

  • Fatigue Strength

The term “fatigue” refers to the situation where a specimen breaks under a load that it has previously withstood for a length of time

  • Toughness

The materials capacity to absorb energy, which, is dependant upon strength as well as ductility


ASME code Overview

Sec.I Power Boilers

Sec.II Materials

Sec.III Nuclear Fuel Containers




Sec.IV Heating Boilers

Sec. V Non Destructive Examination

Sec. VI Operation of heating boilers

Sec. VII Operation of power boilers

Sec. VIII Pressure vessels

Sec. IX Welding and Brazing

Sec. X Fiber-Reinforced plastic PV

Sec. XI Inspection of nuclear power plant

Sec. XII Transport tanks


ASME code overview

  • Sec. II: Materials
  • Part A : Ferrous material specifications
  • Part B : Non-Ferrous material specifications
  • Part C : Specifications of welding rods, electrodes and filler metals
  • Part D : Properties
  • Sec. VIII: Rules of construction of pressure vessels
  • Division 1 : 3 Subsections + mandatory Annex + non mandatory Annex
  • Division 2: Alternative rules
  • Division 3 : Alternative rules of high pressure

TEMA code overview

  • TEMA classes:
  • Class R: Generally severe requirements for petroleum

and related processing applications

  • Class C: Generally moderate requirements of commercial

and general processing applications

  • Class B: Chemical Process service
  • TEMA subsections
  • 10 subsection

Sample Calculations

  • Shell thickness calculations under Internal Pressure:

PR .

t =

+ CA

+ UT

SE – 0.6 P

  • t : Min. Required Shell Thickness
  • P : Design Pressure of Shell Side
  • S: Max. Allowable Stress of Shell Material
  • R: Shell Inside Radius (corroded conditions)
  • E : Joint Efficiency
  • CA: Corrosion Allowance
  • UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable)

Sample Calculations

  • Channel thickness calculations under Internal Pressure:

PR .

t =

+ CA

+ UT

SE – 0.6 P

  • t : Min. Required Channel Thickness
  • P : Design Pressure of Tube Side
  • S: Max. Allowable Stress of Channel Material
  • R: Channel Inside Radius (corroded conditions)
  • E : Joint Efficiency
  • CA: Corrosion Allowance
  • UT: Under Tolerance (if applicable)

Sample Calculations

  • Body Flanges:

Sample Calculations

  • Body Flanges:
  • Trial and error calculations
  • Gasket seating conditions
  • Operating conditions
  • No. of bolts and size
  • Bolt circle diameter
  • Inside and outside diameters
  • Check min. and max. bolt spacing
  • Detailed analysis of the flange
  • Forces calculations
  • Moment calculations
  • Stresses calculations

Sample Calculations

  • Precautions in body flanges design and installations:
  • Pairs of flanges
  • Bolt holes shall straddle center line
  • Corrosion Allowance
  • Cladding
  • Bolts shall be multiple of 4
  • Bolting shall be allowed to be removed from either side
  • Calculated thickness not include the RF

Sample Calculations

  • Nozzles and standard flanges:
  • Flange Rating (ASME B16.5)
  • Area replacement calculations
  • Nozzle neck thickness calculations
  • Impingement protection



Sample Calculations

  • Tubesheet:
  • Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell side and tube side
  • Made from around flat piece of metal with holes drilled for the tubes
  • Tubes shall be uniformly distributed
  • Tubesheet thickness shall be designed for both sides
  • Tubesheet shall be designed for bending stresses and shear stresses
  • Corrosion allowance

Sample Calculations

  • Tubesheet:
  • Tubesheet thickness for bending

T: Effective tubesheet thickness

S: Allowable stress

P: Design pressure corrected for vacuum if applicable at the other side

η: Ligament efficiency

For Square pattern

For Triangular pattern

G: Gasket effective diameter

F: Factor


Sample Calculations

  • Tubesheet:
  • Tubesheet thickness for Shear:

T: Effective tubesheet thickness

DL: Effective diameter of the tube center parameter DL=4A/C

C: Perimeter of the tube layout

A: Total area enclosed by the Perimeter C

P: Design pressure

S: Allowable stress

do: Outside tube diameter


Tube-to-Tubesheet joint

  • Expanded
  • Strength welded
  • Seal welded

Hydrostatic Test

  • Test pressure : 1.3 X MAWP
  • Test Procedure
  • Gasket change

Sample drawing

  • Construction drawing is the design output

Sample drawing 1

Sample drawing 2

thank you
Thank You

Kamal Nashar