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The Affordable Care Act and Integrative Medicine. Michael R. Cousineau Professor, Departments of Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Became Public Law No: 111-148, March 23, 2010 H.R.3590 Related Bills:  H.CON.RES.254 H.RES.1203 H.R.3780

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The affordable care act and integrative medicine

The Affordable Care Act and Integrative Medicine

Michael R. Cousineau

Professor, Departments of Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine


Patient protection and affordable care act
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

  • Became Public Law No: 111-148,

  • March 23, 2010

  • H.R.3590

  • Related Bills: 

    • H.CON.RES.254

    • H.RES.1203

    • H.R.3780

    • H.R.4872

    • S.1728 

  • http://www.thomas.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d111:HR03590:@@@D&summ2=3&

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How does ppaca expand coverage
How does PPACA Expand Coverage?

Beginning January 1, 2014

  • Expands Medicaid to all up to 138% of the federal poverty threshold

  • Health Insurance Exchange with Approved Health Benefit plan and subsidies for those between 139% and 400% of FPL

  • Estimated 35 million Americans

  • Up to 4 million in California

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Eligibility for health coverage under ppaca in california 2011
Eligibility for Health Coverage under PPACA in California, 2011

Source: UC Berkeley Labor Center and UCLA Center for Health Policy Research

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Medicaid expansion
Medicaid Expansion 2011

  • Eliminates many of the categorical eligibility criteria and replaces it with a Modified Adjusted Gross Income

  • All up to 138%* of the federal poverty threshold will be eligible

  • Federal government pays 100% of the cost until 2021 when state cost-sharing

  • State option to expand Medicaid (Supreme Court)

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Health benefit exchange
Health Benefit Exchange 2011

  • A new market for those in the individual market

  • Approved plans with an essential benefit package but different tiers based on what percentage of the actuarial costs will be covered

  • Co payments and deductibles but maximum out of pocket costs

  • Provides subsidies in the form of tax credits for those from 138-400% FPL

  • Family premium limits ranging from 2.0% to 9.5% of income

  • Provision for small businesses

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Essential benefit package
Essential Benefit Package 2011

  • These benefits fit into the following 10 categories:

    • Ambulatory patient services

    • Emergency services

    • Hospitalization

    • Maternity and newborn care

    • Mental health and substance use disorder services, including behavioral health treatment

    • Prescription drugs

    • Rehabilitative services and devices

    • Laboratory services

    • Preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management

    • Pediatric services, including dental and vision care

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Benefits for individuals
Benefits for Individuals 2011

  • http://www.coveredca.com/PDFs/English/CoveredCA-HealthPlanBenefitsComparisonChart.pdf

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Cost to the individual or family
Cost to The Individual or Family 2011

  • Varies depending on income

  • Paid through a tax credit

  • Premium subsidies and for co payments

  • http://www.coveredca.com/fieldcalc/#calculator

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Who is excluded
Who is excluded? 2011

  • Does not include undocumented immigrants

  • Non citizens - 5 year waiting period for subsidies

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How does it affect private insurance
How Does it Affect Private Insurance? 2011

  • Guaranteed Issue No Pre-existing conditions, children now, adults 2014

  • (limits underwriting)

  • Rate Restructuring,

    • age (3:1);

    • tobacco use (at a rate of 1.5:1);

    • family composition; and

    • geography

  • High-risk pool established (temporary)

    • Young adults can remain on their parents’ health plan until age 26, now

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    Young adults can remain on their parents health plan until age 26 young and invincible
    Young adults can remain on their parents’ health plan until age 26. Young and invincible?

    • adults ages 19 to 29 when offered health insurance benefits through an employer,

      • two-thirds took the coverage.

      • For those who did not they were covered by a parent, spouse, or partner or

      • they couldn’t afford the premiums.

    • Commonwealth Fund, 2013

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    Insurance changes
    Insurance until age Changes

    • No lifetime caps or restrictive annual limits on coverage, now

  • Medical Loss Ratio Limited to 80/20,

    • No more than 20% spent on administration, or no medical care expenses

    • Rebates already occurred

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    How does it affect coverage individual mandate
    How Does it Affect Coverage: Individual Mandate until age

    Penalties for being uninsured:

    2.5% of household income

    $695 per adult

    $2,085 per family

    Maximum Amount - Whichever is greater

    Exceptions:

    • No prosecutions 2014-2016

    • Financial hardship

    • Religious objections

    • American Indian ethnicity

    • Uninsured for <3 months

    • Income below tax filing threshold

    • Cost of least expensive plans >8% income

    • Incarcerated

    • Undocumented

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    Health care delivery reform and practice redesign
    Health Care Delivery Reform and Practice Redesign until age

    Accountable Care Organizations

    Payment for Quality Outcomes

    Medical Homes, Team Management, Integrated Care

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    Problems and limitations
    Problems and Limitations until age

    • People not covered

      • Undocumented immigrants

      • Those unable or unwilling to purchase coverage

    • Was the penalties/taxes high enough

    • Longer term State Medicaid Payments

    • States’ involvement

    • Funding for safety net facilities

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    Challenges moving forward
    Challenges until age Moving Forward

    • Workforce

    • Political Challenges

    • Legal Challenges

    • Financial

      • The on going state budget crisis and the federal deficit

      • General economy

    • Logistical Challenge

    • Getting people enrolled

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    Clinicians
    Clinicians until age

    • Section 2706 of the Affordable Care Act prohibits discrimination against licensed health practitioners, including those who practice integrative medicine

    • Section 5101 of the law says that all "doctors of chiropractic," and all "licensed complementary and alternative medicine providers, integrative health practitioners" are included in definition of the national health care work force


    Prevention
    Prevention until age

    • Establishing a National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council, charged with providing “coordination and leadership at the Federal level, and among all federal departments and agencies, with respect to prevention, wellness and health promotion practices, the public health system, and integrative health care in the United States.”

    • Appointment of an Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health that includes “a diverse group of licensed health professions, including integrative health practitioners” to “develop policy and program recommendations and advise the Council on lifestyle-based chronic disease prevention and management, integrative health care practices, and health promotion.”

    • Definition of a healthcare workforce that includes preventive medicine physicians, doctors of chiropractic, licensed complementary and alternative medicine providers, and integrative health practitioners.

    • Funding for patient-centered outcomes research (PCORI) to measure the comparative clinical effectiveness of a variety of treatments and services, including “integrative health practices,” with emphasis on chronic conditions and attention to “the potential for new evidence to improve patient health, well-being, and the quality and cost of care.”

    • Establishing (through HRSA) a National Coordinating Center for Integrative Medicine (NccIM) that will provide technical assistance to and evaluate integrative medicine residency (IMR) programs.

    • Source: http://www.functionalmedicine.org/home/Affordable_Care_Act/


    Resources
    Resources until age

    • http://holisticprimarycare.net/topics/topics-h-n/news-policy-a-economics/1443-healthcare-reform-no-birthday-for-holistic-medicine.html

    • http://www.functionalmedicine.org/home/Affordable_Care_Act/

    • http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/cam-practitioners-as-pcps-under-the-aca-part-2/

    • http://www.scnm.edu/news-events/262-affordable-care-act-the-future-of-naturopathic-medicine


    Additional resources
    Additional Resources until age

    • Kaiser Family Foundation http://healthreform.kff.org/

    • Commonwealth Fund http://www.commonwealthfund.org/

    • California Health Care Foundation http://www.chcf.org/

    • Covered California (California’s Health Exchange) http://www.coveredca.com/

    • http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/Disproportionate_Share_Hospital.pdf

    • http://www.urban.org/health/

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