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Youth unemployment in Germany. A country report. Devision of responsibilites. the educational legislation and administration is primarily the responsibility of the states (“ Länder ”).  regional differences

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devision of responsibilites
Devision of responsibilites
  • the educational legislation and administration is primarily the responsibility of the states (“Länder”).  regional differences
  • The Länder are also responsible for vocational training in schools, and therefor also for vocational schools
  • the responsibility for Germany's dual system, which combines education with vocational apprenticeships, is shared by the Conference of Ministers of Education, a national coordinating and advisory body, the federal government, the states, representatives from industry, commerce, the trades and trade unions, and vocational teachers.  
education system
Education system
  • In theory German public education makes it possible for qualified kids to study up to university level, regardless of their families' financial status. But in practice it is a very selecting system, where disadvantages in society are reflected:
  • Disadvantaged and migrant children are at risk of poor educational achievement in Germany
  • Upper-middle-class children have a 2,63 times chance to be nominated to Gymnasium than working-class children
  • Children from poor immigrant or working-class families are less likely to succeed in school than children from middle- or upper-class backgrounds.
  • Immigrant children academically underperform their peers.Immigrants have tended to be less educated than native Germans.
  • The poor also tend to be less educated.
unemployement in germany
Unemployement in Germany

Source: OECD 2011

active labor market policies
Active labor market policies
  • Germany installed an extensive preparatory/ transitory training system aiming to prepare youths towards a successful entry into the apprenticeship system or other options of the vocational education.
  • From 2000 to 2010, participation rates in the preparatory system have increased by about 50%.
  • The extensive labor market reforms between 2002 and 2005 (the Job AQTIV Act and Hartz-reforms) further extended the realm of temporary work arrangements 2000, with the objective of reaching a faster activation of unemployed individuals. This lead to the expansion of ALMP offering job search assistance and short-term training courses.
  • The majority of ALMP schemes are financed by the federal government and the regulations regarding their implementation are contained in the Social Act III (SGB III).
  • Unemployed youths who fulfill the eligibility criteria, are entitled to participate in the standard ALMP schemes available in the SGB III, e.g., training measures, wage subsidies, job creation schemes, etc.
active labor market programes almp
Active labor market programes (ALMP)

Regarding the type of assistance offered, the

ALMP in place can be grouped into three

broad categories:

  • counseling and placement help (most important due to the numbers)
  • Longerterm measures either aiming to promote the integration of youths into an apprenticeship
  • measures aiming to help youth integrate into the first labor market (training programs, wage and selfemployment subsidies, and job creation schemes)
active labor market programmes
Active labor market programmes
  • Job Search and Assessement of Employability
  • Short-Term Training
  • JUMP Wage Subsidies
  • Job Creation Schemes
  • Further Training Measures
  • Preparatory Training
active labor market programs almp results
Active labor market programs (ALMP) - Results
  • positive long-term employment effects for nearly all measures aimed at labor market integration.
  • Measures aimed at integrating youths in apprenticeships are effective in terms of education participation, but fail to show any impact on employment outcomes
  • Public sector job creation is found to be harmful for the medium-term employment prospects and ineffective in the long-run.
  • German ALMP systematically ignores loweducated youths as neediest of labor market groups.
  • While no employment program shows a positive impact on further education participation for any subgroup, the employment impact of participation is often significantly lower for low-educated youths.
  • wage subsidies of shorter duration work better for high-schooling youths, while wage subsidies with longer duration work equally well for low and high educated youths. This suggests that low educated youths require more time to turn the subsidized work experience into a stepping stone to a stable employment entry. By extending the access to longer-term professional experience for these youths, an additional barrier of labor market integration for these could potentially be removed.
situation in freyung grafenau frg
Situation in Freyung-Grafenau (FRG)
  • the district of FRG occupies rank number 93 amongst 96 districts in Bavaria
  • district still suffers from structural deficits which leads to a low level of job offers, to a low income and therefore to a high rate of out-commuter
  • Low income (73% of national average) and highest proportion of exclusively marginal employment within Bavaria
  • Demographic effects: average age is now 43.0 years, and will increase to 47.9 years in 2025,
  • growth of population within the last 10 years, the rate for FRG was -3,8% in comparison to +2,5% in whole Bavaria. The figures for the years between 2016 and 2025 are estimated to be -7,5% (Bavaria 2%).
  • the fertility rate and the migration of families (person per 1.000 inhabitants) is declining, the fertility rate amounts to -4,9% (Bavaria 0,3%), the migration of families -0,7% (Bavaria 0,7%).
  • low percentage of 4.2% of the high-skilled workers in total employment (Bavaria 10.6%)  no job opportunities for high skilled
  • But still a skills shortage, in particular in the trades, can already be noticed and will increase during the next years; already open positions for apprentices
youth in frg
Youth in FRG
  • many of the graduates are very attached to their home and would like to work and live there.
  • The relative balance of migration of 18 to 24-year-olds in 2011 was -1.9% in FRG (Bavaria +1%).
  • In total, about 40% of the young people leave the district after having graduated in order to begin a vocational training, academic studies or to work elsewhere. This is quite dramatic because they often do not return, and the regional labor market misses those youths.
  • But the labor market in FRG actually offers young people sufficient prospects: Statistically there are 100 candidates in the district FRG compared to a range of 106.1 apprenticeships. The training rate is 8.9% compared to 6.2% in whole Bavaria This density of training positions occupies rank 25 in the national INSM comparison. On average, in whole Germany there are 98.9 apprenticeships for 100 applicants.
youth in frg1
Youth in FRG
  • there is not a fundamental shortage of training positions but that a lack of qualifications and vocational maturity
  • mismatch between the behavior concerning choice of jobs and the available job offer is a general problem
  • the choice of occupation does not depend on the existing possibilities on the regional labor market, but on very traditional ideas.
  • The reasons for the unidirectional career choices are career teaching in schools, vocational guidance by the employment agency, the information given by the parents and other relatives and the information of the young people´s peer group
reasons for the low unemployment rate in germany
Reasons for the low unemployment rate in Germany
  • Demographic change: decline in the birth rate (1.4 children per women)
  • Relatively good economic situation
  • The dual system
  • Long (vocational) education periode
  • high labor market orientation of the vocational training system in Germany
  • lower level of starting salaries
  • Good starting position for academics due to the lack of skilled labour
  • Active Labor Market Policies
  • Germany is one of the European countries with the highest expenditures on youth Active Labor Market Programmes
  • Additional educational offers to young unemployed by Public Employment Service
  • Social responsibility exercised by companies
risks for youth
Risks for youth
  • Sequences of (unpaided) internships
  • atypical forms of employment, such as part-time work, temporary and time-limited contracts, tempory agency work, seasonal work et.c have become a kind of norm for young professionals, with less stable long-term employment outcomes
  • Only 40% have direct access to regular vocational training, others are going through a passage of various public employment and training measures and programmes
  • access to the dual apprenticeship system is competitive and particularly problematic for youths with low previous educational attainment
  • youth with no vocational qualification are up to three times more likely to be unemployed than youths with qualification—compared to youths with tertiary education they are eight times as likely
  • In terms of the probability for young people to enter long-term unemployment, Germany is amongst the European countries with the highest risk