System Development Life Cycle. In the present booming economical environment every organization plans to expand and develop quick system and encash economic boom, as soon as possible. This require a process which can quickly develop new systems, in lesser time with lesser cost.
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In the present booming economical environment every organization plans to expand and develop quick system and encash economic boom, as soon as possible.
This require a process which can quickly develop new systems, in lesser time with lesser cost.
This presentation will focus on the process of how to achieve the development goal.
Sridhar & Santhanam
We are talking about the development of a system or business so first we should understand what is development: -
“System Development” refers to the process of –
System Development is having two major component in it
System Development usually begins when a problem or opportunity is identified by Managers, it can be because of any of the followings:
A system development methodology is a formalized, standardized, documented set of activities used to manage a system development project. It can be characterized as follows:
Preliminary InvestigationPreliminary Investigation
Whatever may be the reason of a request submitted by the Users or Managers to the IS department a system analyst is assigned to make a preliminary investigation.
The objective of this activity is to review all requests and identify those proposals that are most beneficial to the organization. But this should be noted that this is neither a designed study nor it includes collection of details to completely describe the business system.
Preliminary Investigation object can be achieved in following steps:
Preliminary InvestigationRequest Clarification
Preliminary InvestigationFeasibility (Possibility) Study
Evaluation of alternative systems through cost and benefit analysis:
Preliminary InvestigationEstimating Cost & Benefit
Requirement Analysis & System AnalysisRequirement Analysis and System Analysis
After the selection of a request for development analyst study in depththe Present and Proposed New System. This is the study of weakness & Problems in the present system and management requirements of new system.
This phase of System Development is being completed in following step:
Requirement Analysis & System AnalysisCollection of Data & Facts
Every system is built to meets some set of needs and to assess these needs, the analyst often interact extensively with the people, who will be benefited from the system In order to determine the requirement of those peoples he can use following facts finding techniques:
Requirement Analysis & System AnalysisAnalysis of Present System
Detailed investigation of the present system involves collecting, organizing and evaluating facts about the present system and the environment in which it operates by studying following areas in depth:
Requirement Analysis & System AnalysisAnalysis of Proposed System
After each functional area of present system is defined the purposed system specification must be defined.
These specification will be based on the strength and weakness of present system.
System Specification which should be in conformity with the Project Objective and Areas Covered should be following:
System DesignSystem Design
System design first involves Logical Design. First one has to write detailed specification that called design specification. Than secondly it involves Physical Design.
This Phase of System Development includes following functions:
System DesignDesigning System Output
A process of Output designing contained Designing of Content (required info in an output), Form (the way in which a content presented to user), Volume (quantum of Output i.e. Prints), Time Lines (time of need of outputs), Media (method of output i.e. Print, CD etc) and Format (Physical arrangement of Data).
The way in which data will be presented to the User which should be simple and better understandable and for this Tabular and Graphic (charts, maps etc) can be used.
The layout of a output can be in Printed form, visual on screen etc.
System DesignDesigning of System Input
A process of Input designing contained Designing of Content (required info in a input), Form (the media in which input is received by user), Volume (quantum of input records), Time Lines (required time to enter one record), Media (method of input i.e. keyboard, BCR etc) and Format (Input by the user in the system).
System DesignData Storage
This includes the storage of data, indexing etc.
For storage of data it can follow following approaches:
System Acquisition & DevelopmentSystem Acquisition & Development
After designing the system all required resources (hardware & Software) should be gathered. If some of them are already with the organization than it reduces the cost of acquisition, for remaining items organization has to plan its procurements process, this includes following:
System Acquisition & DevelopmentSelection of Hardware
While selecting the hardware for new system a developer must keep in mind following:
System Acquisition & DevelopmentSelection of Software
Selection of a perfect Software for organization is totally depends on the followings:
System Acquisition & DevelopmentVendor Selection
This is finding of resources from new system hardware and software will be procured.
At resource will be finalized based on the following:
System TestingSystem Testing
This is Performing Parallel Operation and get the following done to analyze the operational implementation feasibility:
Implementation & MaintenanceImplementation & Maintenance
As the final Phase of the System Development it gives the results of the whole process and handover the new system to end users.
This also includes the overall review of the development process for its leakages and errors in it.
To complete this phase a developer has to complete the following functions successfully:
Implementation & MaintenanceEquipment Installation
This includes following functions:
Implementation & MaintenanceTraining Personnel
Since user are not familiar with the New System, System Development Process includes training of -
If there are deficiencies in Training, thesemay translate into reduction in user Productivity Levels
Implementation & MaintenanceConversion Procedures
This is the time when organization switch over from old system to new developed system.
Following are the Strategies / Methods for conversion / Changeover of old system to new system.
Implementation & MaintenancePost Implementation Evaluation (Feedback)
Analysis of Satisfaction of Users or checking whether system is Operating Properly or whether Objectives of System Development is achieved or not, is the most important function in whole System Development process.
This is also important for development of new system in future since each development gives some experiences and lists some things to be taken care off.
Post Implementation Evaluation includes following area: