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  1. IndIGOIndian Initiative in Gravitational-wave ObservationsApplication for GWIC Membership BalaIyer Raman Research Institute, Bangalore Chair, IndIGO Consortium Council GWIC Meeting, Cardiff, 10 July 2011

  2. Gravitational wave legacy in India • Indian contribution over two decades to the global effort for detecting GW internationally recognized on two significant fronts • Seminal contributions to source modeling at RRI [BalaIyer] and to GW data analysis at IUCAA [SanjeevDhurandhar] • RRI: Indo-French collaboration for two decades to compute high accuracy waveforms for in-spiraling compact binaries from which the GW templates used in LIGO and Virgo are constructed. Cardiff collaboration on improved detection templates, parameter estimation, implications for Astrophyscs and cosmology • IUCAA: Designing efficient data analysis algorithms involving advanced mathematical concepts.. Notable contributions include the search for binary in-spirals, hierarchical methods, coherent search with a network of detectors and the radiometric search for stochastic gravitational waves. • IUCAA: Tarun Souradeep with expertise in CMB data & Planck creates bridge between CMB and GW data analysis challenges : stochastic GW background maps • IUCAA has collaborated with most international GW detector groups and has been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for a decade.

  3. Multi-Institutional, Multi-disciplinary Consortium (2009) Nodal Institutions • CMI, Chennai • Delhi University • IISER Kolkata • IISER Trivandrum • IIT Madras (EE) • IIT Kanpur (EE) • IUCAA, Pune • RRCAT, Indore • TIFR, Mumbai • IPR, Bhatt • Others • RRI • JamiaMiliaIslamia • TezpurUniv

  4. IndIGO: The goals • Provide a common umbrella to initiate and expand GW related experimental activity and train new technically skilled manpower • Seek pan-Indian consolidated IndIGO membership in LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) for participation in Advanced LIGO. • Create a Tier-2 data centre in IUCAA for LIGO Scientific Collaboration Deliverables and as a LSC Resource • Start collaborative work on joint projects under the IUSSTF Indo-US IUCAA-Caltech joint Centre at IUCAA • Explore the Roadmap for EGO-IndIGO collaboration on GW and a possible MOU (Meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA) • Explore Indian participation in LISA and space based GW detectors in the future ( ASTROD 5 meeting on July 14 – 16, 2012 at RRI)

  5. The IndIGO Consortium IndIGO Council Bala Iyer ( Chair) RRI, Bangalore Sanjeev Dhurandhar (Science) IUCAA, Pune C. S. Unnikrishnan (Experiment) TIFR, Mumbai Tarun Souradeep (Spokesperson) IUCAA, Pune Data Analysis & Theory Sanjeev Dhurandhar IUCAA Bala Iyer RRI Tarun Souradeep IUCAA Anand Sengupta Delhi University Archana Pai IISER, Thiruvananthapuram Sanjit Mitra JPL , IUCAA K G Arun Chennai Math. Inst., Chennai Rajesh Nayak IISER, Kolkata A. Gopakumar TIFR, Mumbai T R Seshadri Delhi University Patrick Dasgupta Delhi University Sanjay Jhingan Jamila Milia Islamia, Delhi L. Sriramkumar, Phys., IIT M Bhim P. Sarma Tezpur Univ . Sanjay Sahay BITS, Goa P Ajith Caltech , USA Sukanta Bose, Wash. U., USA B. S. Sathyaprakash Cardiff University, UK Soumya Mohanty UTB, Brownsville , USA Badri Krishnan Max Planck AEI, Germany Instrumentation & Experiment C. S. Unnikrishnan TIFR, Mumbai G Rajalakshmi TIFR, Mumbai P.K. Gupta RRCAT, Indore Sendhil Raja RRCAT, Indore S.K. Shukla RRCAT, Indore Raja Rao ex RRCAT, Consultant Anil Prabhakar, EE, IIT M Pradeep Kumar, EE, IIT K Ajai Kumar IPR, Bhatt S.K. Bhatt IPR, Bhatt Ranjan Gupta IUCAA, Pune Bhal Chandra Joshi NCRA, Pune Rijuparna Chakraborty, Cote d’Azur, Grasse Rana Adhikari Caltech, USA Suresh Doravari Caltech, USA Biplab Bhawal (ex LIGO)

  6. IndIGO Advisory Structure Committees: National Steering Committee: KailashRustagi (IIT, Mumbai) [Chair]BalaIyer (RRI) [Coordinator]SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA) [Co-Coordinator]D.D. Bhawalkar (Quantalase, Indore)[Advisor] P.K. Kaw (IPR) AjitKembhavi (IUCAA) P.D. Gupta (RRCAT)J.V. Narlikar (IUCAA)G. Srinivasan International Advisory Committee AbhayAshtekar (Penn SU)[ Chair] RanaAdhikari (LIGO, Caltech, USA) David Blair (AIGO, UWA, Australia)AdalbertoGiazotto (Virgo, Italy)P.D. Gupta (Director, RRCAT, India)James Hough (GEO ; Glasgow, UK)[GWIC Chair]Kazuaki Kuroda (LCGT, Japan)HaraldLueck (GEO, Germany)Nary Man (Virgo, France)Jay Marx (LIGO, Director, USA)David McClelland (AIGO, ANU, Australia)Jesper Munch (Chair, ACIGA, Australia)B.S. Sathyaprakash (GEO, Cardiff Univ, UK)Bernard F. Schutz (GEO, Director AEI, Germany)Jean-Yves Vinet (Virgo, France)Stan Whitcomb (LIGO, Caltech, USA) Program Management Committee: C S Unnikrishnan (TIFR, Mumbai), [Chair] Bala R Iyer (RRI, Bangalore), [Coordinator] SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA, Pune) [Co-cordinator] TarunSouradeep (IUCAA, Pune) Bhal Chandra Joshi (NCRA, Pune) P Sreekumar (ISAC, Bangalore) P K Gupta (RRCAT, Indore) S K Shukla (RRCAT, Indore) Sendhil Raja (RRCAT, Indore)]

  7. LSC Collaboration from India • Aug 2000 - 2010 MOU between IUCAA (SanjeevDhurandhar)  and LIGO (LSC) • Projects carried out under LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) - Hierarchical GW Search for inspiralling compact binaries as part of inspiral group of LSC with AnandSenguptaand the inspiral group -Radiometric search for GW stochastic background as part of stochastic group of LSC withSanjitMitra, TarunSouradeep, IUCAA - Radiometric search for Pulsars as part of continuous wave group of LSC with HimanMukhopadhyay, Badri Krishnan, AEI and John Whelan, AEI -All sky and all frequency search with Badri Krishnan, AEI • The most recent work in progress is on the fast transform for continuous sources which is based on group theoretic methods.

  8. High precision experimental expertise in India • TIFR [C.S. Unnikrishnan] : High precision experiments and tests of weak forces • Test gravitation using most sensitive torsional balances and optical sensors. • Techniques related to precision laser spectroscopy, electronic locking, stabilization. • G.Rajalakshmi (IIA  TIFR, 3m prototype); • Suresh Doravari (IIA  LIGO, Caltech expt./AdvLIGO) • IITM [Anil Prabhakar] and IITK [Pradeep Kumar] (EE depts) • Photonics, Fiber optics and communications • Characterization and testing of optical components and instruments for use in India.. • RRCAT • [S.K. Shukla on INDUS, A.S. Raja Rao (exRRCAT)] --UHV • [Sendhil Raja, P.K. Gupta] - Optical system design, laser based instrumentation, optical metrology, Large aperture optics, diffractive optics, micro-optic system design. • [RijuparnaChakraborty, France  LIGO/EGO pdf?]Adaptive Optics….

  9. Large experiment expertise in India • RRCAT…. • IPR[S.B. Bhatt on Aditya and Ajai Kumar] - UHV experience, Lasers… Support role in large volume UHV system, Control systems,…. • Groups at BARC and RRCAT : involved in LHC • providing a variety of components and subsystems like precision magnet positioning stand jacks, superconducting correcting magnets, quench heater protection supplies and skilled manpower support for magnetic tests and measurement and help in commissioning LHC subsystems. • Teams at Electronics & Instrumentation Groups at BARC (may be interested in large instrumentation projects in XII plan) • Groups at ISRO,…….

  10. IndIGO: The Aspirations • Set up a major experimental initiative in GW astronomy • MOU with ACIGA to collaborate on GW Astronomy • Two Alternatives depending on the Australian decision • Partner in LIGO-Australia • Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights Another Developing possibility… • LIGO-India • Letter from LIGO Labs with offer of LIGO-India and Requirement Document • IndIGO Consortium is working towards getting these alternatives included among other National Mega Projects in the coming Five year plan in India. For the latter alternative, exploring National Flagship Mega Project status and ensuring requirements from the LIGO-Lab can be met in time to seek the required NSF and US govt approvals.

  11. LIGO-India:Why is it a good idea? • Geographical relocation Strategic for GW astronomy • Increased event rates (x4) by coherent analysis • Improved duty cycle • Improved Detection confidence • Improved Sky Coverage • Improved Source Location required for multi-messenger astronomy • Improved Determination of the two GW polarizations • Potentially large Indian science user community in the future • Indian demographics: youth dominated – need challenges • Improved UG education system will produce a larger number of students with aspirations looking for frontline research opportunity at home. • Substantial data analysis trained faculty exists in India and Large Data Analysis Center Facilities are being planned

  12. IndIGO 3m Prototype Detector Funded by TIFR Mumbai on campus (2010)PI: C. S.Unnikrishnan (Cost ~ INR 3.5cr) • Goals of the TIFR 3-m prototype interferometer (to be operational in 2014): • Research and Training platform with all the features of the advanced LIGO-like detectors, scaled down to displacement sensitivity around 10-18 m, above 200 Hz. • The Indian research platform for features like signal recycling, DC read-out, and most importantly the use of squeezed light and noise reduction (last phase). • Instrument for studies on short range gravity and QED force, especially a measurement of the Casimir force in the range 10 -100 microns where no previous measurements exist (Rajalakshmi and Unnikrishnan, Class, Quant. Grav. 27, 215007 (2010).

  13. Old LIGO Seismic (best and worst case, dashed) Signal recycling + Squeezing Sketch of expected sensitivity for 3-m prototype 10-14 10-15 Best case total 10-16 10-17 SQL suspension noise 10-18 10-19 Shot noise 10-20 1 100 1000 10000 10 Frequency (Hz)

  14. Indo-US centre for Gravitational Physics and Astronomy @ IUCAA APPROVED for funding (Dec 2010) • Centre of Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) • Exchange program to fund mutual visits and • facilitate interaction. • Nodal centres: IUCAA , India & Caltech, US. • Institutions: • Indian: IUCAA, TIFR, IISER, DU, CMI - PI: Tarun Souradeep • US: Caltech, WSU - PI: Rana Adhikari

  15. Participation in LSC during Advanced LIGOProposed Data Analysis activities of the IndIGO Consortium • Principal Leads: K.G. Arun, R.Nayak, A. Pai, A. Sengupta, S. Mitra • Participants: S. Dhurandhar, T.Souradeep, B. R. Iyer, C.K. Mishra, • M.K. Harris,…. • Institutions: CMI, IUCAA, IISER (Kolkata), IISER (Tvm), Univ of Delhi • Projects • Multi-detector Coherent veto • Tests of GR and alternative theories of gravity • Stochastic Gravitational wave background analysis • IndIGO Data Center

  16. IndIGO Data Centre @ IUCAA Anand Sengupta, DU, IndIGO • Primary Science: Online Coherent search for GW signal from binary mergers using data from global detector network Coherent  2-4 x event rate (40  80-160 /yr for NS-NS) • Role of IndIGO data centre • Large Tier-2 data/compute centre for archival of GWdata and analysis • Bring together data-analysts within the Indian gravity wave community. • Puts IndIGO on the global map for international collaboration with LIGO Science Collab. wide facility. Part of LSC participation from IndIGO • Large University sector participation via IUCAA • 200 Tflops peak capability (by 2014) • Storage: 4x100TB per year per interferometer. • Network: gigabit+ backbone, National Knowledge Network • Gigabit dedicatedlink to LIGO lab Caltech • 20 Tf 200 Tb funded IUCAA : ready Mid 2012

  17. Concluding Remarks.. • Over two decades India has been involved in quality GW research and been a part of the International GW community • Since 2009 Indian aspirations involve participation in a major GW experiment eventually leading to a GW detector in India • The Indian Aspirations in GW research are represented by the IndIGOConsortium • With help from the International GW community IndIGO has made significant progress to integrate into the GWIC plans towards the setting up of a GW detector network • IndIGO has concrete plans as outlined in the presentation to increase participation in GW research in the coming years. • By becoming a member of GWIC, IndIGO can contribute more effectively in the future towards the GWIC agenda to detect GW leading on to Gravitational wave Astronomy..


  19. LIGO-India: … the challenges Indian Site • Requirements: • Low seismicity • Low human generated noise • Air connectivity • Proximity to Academic institutions, labs, industry preferred, … • Preliminary exploration: • IISc new campus & adjoining campuses near Chitra Durga • low seismicity • Solid rock base • 1hr from International airport • Bangalore: science & tech hub • National science facilities complex plans  power and other infrastructure availability, ….

  20. LIGO-India: Indian Requirements • Indian contribution in infrastructure : • Site • Vacuum system • Related Controls • Data centre • Trained manpower for installation and commissioning • Trained manpower for LIGO-India operations for 10 years

  21. GW Research in India (Pre IndIGO:1990 -2009) • Regular International Collaboration with GW groups in Australia, France, Germany, UK, Japan since 1990 • September 1990:InterferometricGravity wave Detector: Phase I: Developmental work and Experiments, A proposal by IUCAA, Pune [S.V. Dhurandhar, N.K. Dadhich, J.V. Narlikar, S.N. Tandon] and CAT, Indore [P.K. Gupta, A.S. Raja Rao, D.D. Bhawalkar] 1.25 cr, Staffing 21Phase II: 100 m Detector : 13 crores, Staffing 51 • December 1995:Design of the Vacuum system for AIGO 500 ( CAT/95-16, Indore) [A.S. Raja Rao] • International GW Collaborative Projects • 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995IUCAA-  UWA Informal Collaboration [SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA) and David Blair (UWA) and David McClelland (ANU)] • 1995 -1998 Indo-French Project: 1010-1 Modellingof non-linear effects in high power optical cavities of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors [S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Jean-Yves Vinet (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur, Orsay] • 2000 – 2004Indo-French Project: 2204-1 Gravitational wave data analysis for laser interferometer space antenna[S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Jean-Yves Vinet (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice)] • 2003 – 2007Indo-French Project: 2904-1 Gravitational Waves from Neutron Star Binaries, [BalaIyer (RRI) and Luc Blanchet (IAP)  ] • 2006 - 2009 Indo-French Project: 3504-1 - Physical and mathematical modeling of LISA mission [S.V. Dhurandhar (IUCAA) and Bertrand Chauvineau (Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Nice)] • 2006 - 2009 Indo-French Project: 3504-3 - Systematic effects in CMB of ESA’s Satellite “PLANCK”[TarunSouradeep (IUCAA) and François R. Bouchet (Institutd’Astrophysique de Paris)] • 2010 - 2013  Indo-French Project: 4204-2 High accuracy gravitational waves from black hole binaries [BalaIyer (RRI) with  Luc Blanchet (IAP), Guillaume Faye (IAP) ] • 2006 - 2011 DST-JSPS Indo-Japanese CollaborationCoincident vs Coherent multi-detector strategies for inspirallingbinaries [SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA), Nobuyuki Kanda (Osaka University)  and  Hideyuki Tagoshi, (Osaka University)]

  22. IndIGO Consortium – Milestones • Late 2007 : ICGC2007 @IUCAA: RanaAdhikari’s visit & discussions • 2009: • Australia-India S&T collaboration Establishing Australia-India collaboration in GW Astronomy • IndIGO Consortium: Reunion meeting IUCAA • GW Astronomy Roadmap for India; • 2009-2011: • Meetings at Kochi, Pune, Shanghai, Perth, Delhi to Define, Reorient and Respond to the Global (GWIC) strategies for setting up the International GW Network. • Bring together scattered Indian Experimental Expertise; Individuals & Institutions • March 2011: IndIGO-I Proposal: Participation in LIGO-Australia • May 2011+: LIGO-India..

  23. Recent and Ongoing IndIGO Projects, Plans.. • 2009 – 2011: Indo-Australian project:  DST/INT/AUS/P-26/08 Establishing Australian-Indian collaboration on gravitational wave astronomy,  [BalaIyer (RRI), SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA), C.S. Unnikrishnan (TIFR), David Blair (UWA), Ju Li (UWA), Chunnong Zhao (UWA)] • 2011 - DST-JSPS S&T scheme approved Coherent multi-detector gravitational wave search using LCGT and advanced interferometers[ArchanaPai (IISER-TVM, PI ), Co-PI:  Anand S. Sengupta (Delhi University), K. G. Arun (CMI),  M.K. Haris(IISER,-TVM) , SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA). Hideyuki Tagoshi (Osaka University, PI) , N. Kanda (Osaka City University), H. Takanishi (Yamanashi Eiwa College),  M. K. Fujimoto (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan)] . • 2011 -IUSSTF Proposal approvedIndo-US  Center  for  GW Physics and Astronomy [Nodal Center: IUCAA  India: TarunSouradeep (IUCAA), K.G. Arun (CMI), SanjeevDhurandhar (IUCAA),  A.   Gopakumar (TIFR),  ArchanaPai (IISER-TVM), AnandSengupta (Delhi Univ), C.S.   Unnikrishnan (TIFR)USA: RanaAdhikari (Caltech), P. Ajith (Caltech), Sukanta Bose (Washington Univ),   Yanbei Chen (Caltech), SanjitMitra (JPL), Stanley Whitcomb (Caltech)] • Meeting on Nov 1-2 ,2011 at IUCAA to explore the Roadmap for EGO-IndIGO collaboration on GW and a possible MOU

  24. Indian Gravitational wave community strengths • Very good students and post-docs produced who have become.. * Leaders in GW research abroad [Sathyaprakash, Bose, Mohanty] (3) *New faculty at premier institutions in India (6) [Gopakumar, ArchanaPai, Rajesh Nayak, AnandSengupta, K.G. Arun, SanjitMitra, P. Ajith?] • Strong Indian presence in GW Astronomy in the Global detector network where broad international collaboration is the norm  relatively easy to get well trained researchers back • Close interactions with the very supportiveInternational community as reflected in the International Advisory committee of IndIGO– Chair: AbhayAshtekar • LIGO-Lab participation in IndIGO schools, commitment to training and assisting in high end technology tasks related to GW experiments should LIGO-India come about.

  25. Manpower generation for sustenance of LIGO-India : Preliminary Plans & exploration • Since Advanced LIGO will have a lead time, participants will be identified who will be deputed to take part in the commissioning of Advanced LIGO and later bring in the experience to LIGO-India. They will start building groups with associated training program. • Successful IndIGO Summer internships in International labs underway • High UG applications 30/40 each year from IIT, IISER, NISERS,.. • 2 summers, 10 students, 1 starting PhD at LIGO-MIT • Plan to extend to participating National labs to generate more experimenters • IndIGO schools are planned annually to expose students to emerging opportunity in GW science • 1st IndIGO school in Dec 2010 in Delhi Univ. (thru IUCAA) • Post graduate school specialization courses , or more • Jayant Narlikar: “Since sophisticated technology is involved IndIGO should like ISRO or BARC training school set up a program where after successful completion of the training, jobs are assured.”

  26. The TIFR 3-m prototype detector 6 m 6 m 15 cm dia. mirrors (3 kg), 1 W NPRO laser, 2 stage passive pre-isolation, 10-9 mbar UHV

  27. RRCAT (Next Plan period): Advanced Interferometry(Narrow line width Frequency Stabilised laser development) The laser will be an injection seeded Nd;YAG or Yb:Silica fiber laser locked to a stabilized reference cavity. The target would be to demonstrate a laser with 1W output and sub-kHz line width and few Hz stability. Scaling up of the power to 10W will be done as the next step.

  28. RRCAT: Advanced Interferometry(Ultraflat Components development) Development of Ultraflat Optical components such as mirrors for GWD will require augmenting the existing facility with an ion beam figuring system for final correction of the polished optics to /500 or better.

  29. Photonics @ IIT-Madras • 11 faculty members (8 in EE, 3 in Physics) • 10 M. Tech scholars in EE (Photonics) • 20+ research scholars (M.S. and Ph.D.) • Research specializations • Optical communications • Fiber lasers • Diffractive optical elements • Silicon photonics, plasmonics • Nonlinear and quantum optics • Metrology and instrumentation • Strong industry partnerships

  30. IIT-M, IIT-K participation in LIGO • Photonics research • Squeezed state detection • High power lasers • Diffractive optics • Silicon photonics • Manpower training • 2-3 research fellows each year • Sabbatical, or on lien, with LIGO-India • Up to 20% of regular faculty time

  31. Possible IndIGO Contributions to 3G Detectors (ET) • Development of the lasers systems, investigate emerging laser technologies such as fiber lasers for developing a suitable laser for 3rd generation detector. • Develop squeezed light sources suitable for use in GWD. • Design and development of diffractive optical components for generating higher order Laguerre-Gauss mode laser beams. • Investigate instabilities due to quantum back action on cavity mirrors. • Development of high flatness fused silica/silicon optics and develop fabrication and metrology techniques.

  32. Possible IndIGO Contributions to 3G Detectors (ET) • Design and development of high power optical coating for the detector optics. • Develop techniques for absorption measurement of high purity Si as a possible optical substrate at 1.5 micron laser wavelength. • Develop high accuracy wavefront sensing and laser scanning based thermal compensation of cavity mirrors. • Investigate possible techniques to cool the detector mirrors in a non contact way (laser cooling of Yb doped glasses have been demonstrated)

  33. IndIGO: The Aspirations • Set up a major experimental initiative in GW astronomy • MOU with ACIGA to collaborate on GW Astronomy • Plan A: Partner in LIGO-Australia • Indian partnership at 15% of Australian cost with full data rights. • Plan B: LIGO-India • Letter from LIGO Labs with offer of LIGO-India and Requirement Document • IndIGO Consortium is working towards getting LIGO-India identified as a National Flagship Mega Project in the coming Five year plan in India and ensuring requirements from the LIGO-Lab are met in time to seek the required NSF and US govt approvals.