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Using the UMLS MetaMap as a Cause of Death Analyzer

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    1. Using the UMLS MetaMap as a Cause of Death Analyzer Michael Hogarth, MD Michael Resendez, MS Univ. of California, Davis

    2. 2 Overview Causes of Death: A Historical Perspective Overview of the California EDRS Cause of Death Analysis tool (BECA) NLM MetaMap and the UMLS BECA-MetaMap experiment Discussion

    3. Historical Perspectives on causes of death Bills of Mortality (1532) Arose from the need to better understand death rates in medieval England -- plague epidemics(1361,1368,1375,1390,1406, ) John Graunt (1620-74) Used the Bills of Mortality and found an infant death rate of 36% in England -- not previously known or understood London Bills of Mortality classification Used by Dr. John Snow to characterize a cholera outbreak traced to a water source in London Evolved to become the Intl. Classification of Disease (1850s) International Classification of Disease(ICD) -- used for the last 150 years

    4. 4 CA-EDRS Causes of Death

    5. 5 Causes of Death Importance key epidemiological information is contained in the cause of death Issues and Challenges absolutely correct versus close to correct absolute correctness requires significant time/effort and manual effort is close to correct in an automated fashion still useful? Typical process in California COD --> SuperMICAR --> Stat Master File turnaround for entire process can be lengthy (~2 years) could have a trend in causes of death and it would not be known by local jurisdictions for 2 years. Today in California a significant number of jurisdictions today dont wait for the final statistical files from the State office to look at trends --- they *manually* code (if they have the staff) -- takes time and funding

    6. 6 Preliminary COD classification Possible uses of a preliminary COD classification using automated methods that are close to correct early identification of trends in a local jurisdiction disease vs. injury/poisoning -- coroner referral cross-checking identify specific infectious causes (encephalitis, cholera, etc..) What it is not not for absolutely correct cause of death classification will not replace the nosologists expertise in understanding the sequence of events leading to death nor their understanding of ICD-10, with its includes/excludes

    7. 7 How to analyze causes of death? Challenges text is verbatim and thus arbitrary (free text) need to go beyond simple keyword matching biomedical knowledge and content is vast -- and constantly changing! A possible approach - text mining and computational linguistic techniques

    8. 8 BECA We built BECA, a generic concept analyzer framework that can incorporate any concept identifier engine such as NLM MetaMap and other text processing tools BECA = BECA Enables Concept Analysis Supports a plug-in design for the concept matcher and other components (ie, spell checker) Designed to support multiple transformations of the text in step-by-step fashion transformations -- strip special characters, lower case, run it through the concept matcher engine (MetaMap or other), run it through an available spell checker (jazzy spell, etc..) example transformations convert to lowercase, remove all punctuation, map string using concept mapper, etc.. First version of BECA uses the NLM MetaMap as a concept mapper

    9. 9 BECA system design

    10. 10 Example transformations

    11. 11 What is NLM MetaMap? The National Library of Medicines MetaMap a free, open source software component built by the NLM Lister Hill Laboratory uses computational linguistic techniques to map biomedical text to a large corpus of biomedical content (the NLM Unified Medical Language System) Provides a number of text processing functions Includes a concept mapper that attempts to match phrases with concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus Includes a UMLS concept-to-code mapping for multiple coding systems (ICD, SNOMED, etc..)

    12. 12 How does MetaMap work? Takes text as input and attempts to identify concepts in the text and match them to concepts in a large corpus of phrases and concepts in biomedicine (UMLS Metathesaurus) The retrieved candidate matches include a score that reflects how sure it believes the match is correct The candidates retrieved include their semantic type Disease or Syndrome, Injury or Poisoning, etc...

    13. 13 The UMLS Developed by the National Library of Medicine Derived from over 100 sources (ICD, SNOMED,) The Unified Medical Language System A system built to support information retrieval in biomedicine Used in PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, etc.. Consists of: (1) UMLS Metathesaurus (2) UMLS Semantic Network (3) UMLS SPECIALIST Lexicon

    14. 14 UMLS in detail UMLS Metathesaurus -- the worlds largest repository of biomedical phrases 1.3 million concepts, 6.4 million unique phrases (concept names) over 100 source vocabularies (ICD,SNOMED,CPT, etc..) UMLS SPECIALIST LEXICON a file that provides individual words found in the UMLS metathesaurus and their linguistic information including grammatical type (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc..) UMLS Sematic Network a set of files that classify the metathesaurus concept into a particular type Examples -- Disease, Injury/Poisoning, Neoplasm, ..

    15. 15 MetaMap Algorithm MetaMaps algorithm consists of four steps (1) Parsing using a part-of-speech tagger text is decomposed into one or more noun phrases ocular complications of myasthenia gravis ==> ocular complications and myasthenia gravis. noun phrases are processed independently by decomposing them into their grammatical origins ocular complications ==> modifier ocular and head of the phrase complications (2) Variant Generation -- variants for each phrase are generated using SPECIALIST variants -- all synonyms of the term, acronyms containing the term, abbreviations, plural/singular variants each variants has a distance score obtained from SPECIALIST ocular - eye, eyes, optic, opthalmic, opthalmia, oculus, oculi

    16. 16 MetaMap Algorithm MetaMap Algorithm continued (3) Candidate Retrieval from Metathesaurus all metathesaurus strings that have at least one of the variants is retrieved can exclude those where the variant is present in a large number of strings (ie, very common string) (4) Candidate evaluation -- the MMTX score each metathesaurus candidate is evaluated by calculating the strength of the similarity between the original input phrase and the candidate phrase from metathesaurus the calculation involves a weighted average of four metrics including distance scores for variants from input noun phrase(variation), whether the phrase is part of the head (centrality), , coverage and cohesiveness

    17. 17 Example BECA MetaMap output Input phrase: ocular complications

    18. 18 The question ?Can BECA using the NLM MetaMap be useful in: Identifying biomedical concepts in a cause of death literal, which is narrative text. auto-coding literals into ICD-10 codes

    19. 19 Cause of Death Literals in CA-EDRS CA-EDRS data is a combination of records initiated in EDRS (EDRS counties) and those submitted on paper (non EDRS counties) Causes of death are verbatim from the certifier and typically entered into EDRS or the typed on a paper certificate by funeral home staff or hospital staff Overall COD statistics for CA-EDRS 462,564 registered death certificates 985,330 unique literals (phrases) in all COD fields 88,719 unique literals (phrases) in the Immediate Cause of Death field

    20. 20 Experiment We randomly selected 1,000 literals from the 88,719 unique literals in the Immediate Cause of Death field We submitted these as is to BECA (MetaMap, no spell checking component) BECA returned 7.9 candidate matches per literal (7,791 candidates for 1,000 strings) Candidate scores ranged from 517 - 1000 Match score distribution for the 7,791 candidates

    21. 21 Example Output

    22. 22 Literals with high score matches >=800

    23. 23 High Score Candidate Matches 3,017 (38.7%) of the 7,791 candidates had a score >=800 95.3% of the original literals (953/1000) had at least one candidate with a match score>=800 54.5% of the original literals (545/1000) had at least one candidate with a match score>=900 30.7% of the original literals (307/1000) had at least one candidate with a match score=1000 Note: only 7.5% were the exact string as found the UMLS Metathesaurus Match score distribution for the 3,017 candidates

    24. 24 Semantic Type correct matches BECA with MetaMap correctly categorized 720 (72%) of the literals by semantic type Of these, Neoplastic Process had the highest reliability

    25. 25 Wrong matches Semantic types most frequently in error

    26. 26 ICD-10 Coding 252 of the 1,000 (25.2%) literals had an ICD-10 matched by BECA-MetaMap Categories 1 = good match 2 = approximate match (within ICD category) 0 = incorrect code Results - 97% were good or approximate 82.5% good match 14.3% approximate match 3.2% incorrect match

    27. 27 ICD-10 Autocoding data

    28. 28 Some interesting challenges CSTFIOTRDPIRATORY FAILURE CHRONIC ALCOHOLISHM ESOPHAGELA VARICES END STAGE RENAL DOSEASE HEAR FAILURE OVARION CANCER WITH METASTASES LUNF CARCINOMA, METASTATIC PENDING TOX & MICRO SEP[TIC SHOCK

    29. 29 Discussion MetaMap may be useful for preliminary categorization of causes of death by semantic type Excluding certain semantic types would improve match precision (at the cost of lower # of matches) BECA-MetaMap only assigned an ICD-10 code 25.2% of the time If BECA-MetaMap assigned an ICD-10 code, it was correct over in 83% of cases, and near correct in 97% of cases We found that MetaMap was confused if: there are multiple concepts (noun phrases) in a single string the phrase has a compound statement (metastasis to brain and bone or gunshot wounds of the head and right arm the phrases begin with certain words (ie, complications, etc...)

    30. 30 Future Directions for BECA Build a new concept mapper to replace MetaMap, and specifically design it to analyze causes of death phrases include a spell checker disambiguation for phrases that have compound statements match SNOMED first, then match to ICD-10 (increases the hit rate for ICD-10 autocoding) improve performance implement for ICD-10 includes/excludes using an open source rules engine (jBoss Rules Engine)

    31. 31 Credits National Library of Medicine, Lister Hill Lab University of California Michael Resendez, MS Cecil Lynch, MD, MS California Department of Health (California Department of Public Health) Terry Trinidad David Fisher Debbie McDowell

    32. 32 California EDRS Developed by the University of California and California DHS (2004-2005) Implementation (2005 - 2008) all death certificates entered into EDRS since Jan 1, 2005 full EDRS (implemented counties)-- DC originates in EDRS and electronically completed locally KDE EDRS (non-EDRS counties) -- DC completed in standard paper fashion, eventually entered by State office into EDRS June 2007 - where are we? today --> 510,000 certificates (2005 - present) Originate locally (EDRS records) or are entered later into EDRS (non-EDRS records) Today, June 2007, ~ 65% originate locally as EDRS electronic By Nov 2007 over 90% of all CA records will originate in EDRS

    33. 33 Cause of Death Workflow with CA-EDRS CA-EDRS does not provide electronic support for gathering of the COD today