Student Seminar for HK Institute of EducationFrom Understanding to Practice - Curriculum Reform and Teachers2 Oct 2002 Dr. KK Chan, Chief Executive Curriculum Development Institute Education Department
Components of presentation • What is the current curriculum reform about? • Why are professional development (PD) & teachers important to the reform? • How to prepare ourselves for a future career in teaching? • Understanding and reflecting on what we need • Understanding and reflecting on how we learn, unlearn and relearn • Curriculum Development in Hong Kong : Building on strengths
A. What is the current reform about? Why changes? • Knowledge-based society and economy • Rising need for moral considerations • Fast social, environment, cultural, political and technological changes and their impact on moral values • Impermanent knowledge • Globalization • Interdependent but competitive world • Impact of information technology • Increasing civic participation in government
Policy recommendations: • Education Commission report (2000) • Learning to Learn Report (CDC, 2001) • Basic Education Curriculum Guide (CDC, 2002) replacing 1993 version • 8 KLA & GS Curriculum Guides (CDC, 2002) – learning targets & contents, core, extension, pedagogy, exemplars
Reading to Learn Moral & Civic Education IT for Interactive Learning Project Learning Short-term targets 2001-2006 (1) (interim review in 2006) 1. Four key tasks
Short-term targets 2001-2006 (2) (interim review in 2006) 2. Critical thinking, creativity, and communication in 8 Key Learning Areas 3. Connect “central curriculum” in 8 KLA Guides with school-based curriculum development at different levels (flexibilities and balance) References: Key Learning Area Curriculum Guides (CDC, 2002) http://www.cdc.org.hk; http://cd.ed.gov.hk)
Medium-term targets 2006-2011 • Continue to improve learning & teaching based on results of review in 2006 • Adopt latest curriculum framework with more school-based curriculum development • Smooth interface with new senior secondary education
Diagrammatic Representation of English Language Education KLA Curriculum Framework English Language Education Curriculum Strands Interpersonal Knowledge Experience 9 Generic Skills Values and Attitudes Flexible and diversified modes of curriculum planning + Effective learning, teaching and assessment Overall Aims and Learning Targets of English Language Education
Diagrammatic Representation of Mathematics Education KLA CurriculumFramework Mathematics Curriculum Generic Skills Learning Dimensions Values & Attitudes effective linkage of learning, teaching and assessment Overall Aims and Learning Targets of Mathematics
Culture & Heritage Place & Environment Time, Continuity & Change Resources & Econ. Activities Social Systems & Citizenship Personal & Social Development Diagrammatic Representation of PSHE KLA Curriculum Framework Sanctity of life, truth, aesthetics ... Equality, kindness, benevolence… optimistic, participatory, critical ... critical thinking skills, critical thinking skills, self management skills, self management skills, problem solving skills, problem solving skills, numeracy numeracy skills, skills, collaboration skills, collaboration skills, communication skills, communication skills, creativity, creativity, study skills, study skills, IT skills IT skills
Strands Diagrammatic Representation of Science Education KLA CurriculumFramework Learning in science should centre on scientific investigation that develops understanding of scientific concepts and principles, and the interconnections between science, technology and society.
TE Learning Existing 15 TE Subjects Framework used by Technology Education
Overall Aims of Arts Curriculum Learning Targets Developing Creativity & Imagination Developing Skills & Processes Cultivating Critical Responses Understanding Arts in Context Generic Skills Values and Attitudes Learning Objectives Students develop skills, knowledge and positive attitudes in the arts through Learning Activities by means of Effective Learning & Teaching and Assessment *KS1 *KS2 *KS3 *KS4 Visual Arts Media Arts Dance Drama Music Other Emerging Art Forms Diagrammatic Representation of Arts Education KLA CurriculumFramework
Diagrammatic Representation of Physical Education KLA CurriculumFramework
B. Why are professional development (PD) & teachers important to the reform? (1) • Classroom practice most effective amongst factors affecting effective schools (Hattie, 1992) • For every $500 spent, increasing teacher education more effective than lowering pupil-teacher ratio, increasing teacher salaries, teacher experience (Greenwald, et al 1996) ·
B. Why are professional development (PD) & teachers important to the reform? (2) • The “content” and “research-based knowledge on how students learn” (deep understanding) in PD have more long-lasting effect in teacher practice than promoting specific pedagogical practice first and different PD format (Ingvarson, 2002) • Role-modelling of teachers & students’ time • Professional responsibility
Other reform contexts in HK • Workload of teachers • Physical setting of schools • On-going educational reviews, e.g. medium of instruction • School-based management • Diversification of school funding systems • Political, economic & social environment
C. How to prepare ourselves for a future career in teaching? • Understanding & reflecting on what we need • Understanding how we learn, unlearn and relearn
1. Understanding & reflecting on what we need • Content knowledge • Pedagogical & content-pedagogical knowledge and skills • Assessment including feedback • Central curriculum & flexibilities for school-based curriculum development • Educational values, principles, theoretical perspectives
i. Content knowledge (e.g. Eng, Chin, Maths, Arts, General Studies, PE, Moral & civic education) • Is the content knowledge of the KLA relevant, update for teaching & learning of the latest curriculum framework? • How much should I know? • How to keep abreast of it? • How could I broaden my horizon in general?
ii. Pedagogical & content-pedagogical knowledge & skills (1) • What are the learning & teaching strategies of achieving the learning targets/objectives in KLA/subjects I am going to teach? • How to develop critical thinking, creativity and communication skills of students? • How could project learning, reading to learn, etc. help achieve student learning?
ii. Pedagogical & content-pedagogical knowledge & skills (2) • What are the learning problems of achieving the learning targets/objectives? • Are theories and principles I’ve learned working in HK contexts, e.g. our students, our classroom? • What works with me? • How could my work be improved?
iii. Assessment (including feedback) • How could assessment help learning? • Do I give meaningful feedback to help students improve learning? • What is the purpose of assessment change? What assessment change would take place at school level and system level in the next five years? How they different from my experiences in the past? • Why the change, & how to cope?
iv. Central curriculum & flexibilities for school-based curriculum development • What is the purpose for flexibilities & professional judgement? • What are the purpose and different modes of curriculum planning, learning & teaching strategies? • How to cater for student diversity? • Am I competent and confident?
v. Educational values, principles, theoretical perspectives • Do I share them? How do I know? • Would I regard moral & civic education as a responsibility of every teacher? • When & how do I use them for improving practice & reflection?
v. Educational values, principles, theoretical perspectives • What perspectives are affecting curriculum, learning & teaching, assessment and other educational policies above? • Philosophy (aims of education, views of knowledge) • Psychology (of learning, moral development) • Sociology • Curriculum Studies, • School management & organisational theories • Policy studies and administration • Teachers’ professional development & life-long learning
2. Understanding & reflecting on how we learn, unlearn, and relearn • Theoretical knowledge, principles in literature, research, lectures, from taught courses, reading • Learning through practice & practical knowledge • Changing theory into practice which works • Practices which work
Personal construction of knowledge from theory, practice, collaboration, sharing & talking, reflections, practice which inform principles & theories
Eleven Essential Themes(Basic Education Curriculum Guide, CDC 2002) • Overview of the Curriculum Reform – Reflecting on strengths and getting ready for action • Whole-school curriculum planning – Achieving learning goals and short-term targets of school curriculum development • Four key tasks – Achieving learning to learn • Effective learning and teaching – Acting to achieve • School policy on assessment – Changing assessment practices
Eleven Essential Themes(Basic Education Curriculum Guide, CDC 2002) • Life-wide learning – Enriching learning through authentic experiences • Quality learning and teaching resources and school library development – Bringing about effective learning • Meaningful homework – Consolidating learning , deepening understanding and constructing knowledge • Interfaces at various levels of schooling – Supporting transition
Strengths & Achievements • Maintaining strengths recognised in BECG - e.g. value for effort • Changing discourse from focus on “teaching” to “learner” & “learning” • Curriculum is not only document, acceptance of flexibility • More effective practices in schools, obvious in confidence to speak, reading & writing • Have “moved” schools, 30% vs 10% • Enhance evidence-based & reflective culture • Over-subscription PD programmes & projects • CDC/HKEA “one document” & “one committee” approach, teacher/SB assessment
A teacher: 可能是中國人的文化吧! 好的東西不好意思說出來，免得被人覺得自己自大囂張。而不好的東西又怕與人分享，免得被人覺得自己無能。