THE FIRST WORLD WAR. 1914-1918. CAUSES OF THE WAR. Historians have traditionally cited four long-term causes of the First World War NATIONALISM – a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation IMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nations
Germany was allied with Austria-Hungary while Russia, France and Britain were partners
The Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
The Schliefflen Plan
British soldiers standing in mud
The conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with the mud, flooding and disease associated with living in such a harsh environment.
Gas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease
French propaganda poster portrayed the Germans as inhuman and impacted American attitudes toward the Germans
German U-boat 1919
May 7, 1915
Encoded message from Germany to Mexico
Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs, And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame, all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time, But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And floundering like a man in fire or lime. Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in. And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.
Famous poem by Wilfred Owen about the evils of mustard gas
Men of the 42nd Division during the Second Marne. These men were killed by artillery fire just 5 minutes after this photo was taken
War ends 11/11/18
Poster encouraging production
Any anti-American sentiments were targeted during wartime
This African American family settled in Chicago
Rosie the Riveter was the symbol of women’s war contributions
Seattle, like many other places, became a masked city. All police wore them, as shown in this photo from "The Great Influenza"
Wilson’s 14 points in his own short hand
Hall of Mirrors
The Big Four met at Versailles
Germans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
The U.S. never did join the league
22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded.