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The Behavioural Model. www.psychlotron.org.uk. Main assumptions: Abnormal behaviour is the consequence of abnormal learning from the environment There is no qualitative difference between normal and abnormal behaviour – they are learned in the same ways: Classical conditioning

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the behavioural model
The Behavioural Model

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Main assumptions:
    • Abnormal behaviour is the consequence of abnormal learning from the environment
    • There is no qualitative difference between normal and abnormal behaviour – they are learned in the same ways:
      • Classical conditioning
      • Operant conditioning
      • Social learning
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Learning by association:
    • When two environmental changes (stimuli) occur together, we learn to associate them
    • The response to one may transfer to the other
    • E.g. Pavlov (1901) taught dogs to salivate when they heard a bell
classical conditioning3
Classical Conditioning

www.psychlotron.org.uk

operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Learning by consequences
    • Organisms operate on their environments
    • The likelihood of them repeating any given behaviour depends on its consequences
      • Reinforcement – more likely to repeat
      • Punishment – less likely to repeat
social learning
Social Learning

www.psychlotron.org.uk

  • Learning by observation
    • People observe the behaviour of other people (models)
    • They may imitate the behaviour they observe
    • Whether or not they do so depends on the observed consequences:
      • Vicarious reinforcement
      • Vicarious punishment