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PRESERVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES: COLD STORAGE, MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE in Turkey. Assoc.Prof.Dr. Güner ÖZAY Aylin SEYLAM. TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center Food Science and Technology Research Center. LAND USE (1999 VALUES).

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assoc prof dr g ner zay aylin seylam

PRESERVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES:COLD STORAGE, MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGEin Turkey

Assoc.Prof.Dr. Güner ÖZAY

Aylin SEYLAM

THEMATIC NETWORK

FIRST WORKSHOP

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THEMATIC NETWORK

FIRST WORKSHOP

land use 1999 values

TUBITAK-Marmara Research Center

Food Science and Technology Research Center

LAND USE (1999 VALUES)

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fruit production 2000
FRUIT PRODUCTION (2000)

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fruit production 20005
FRUIT PRODUCTION (2000)

*: area in hectare.

**: production in tons.

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vegetable production 2000
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION (2000)

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vegetable production 20007
VEGETABLE PRODUCTION (2000)

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food consumption
FOOD CONSUMPTION

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fresh fruit production 1000 tonnes
FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION (1000 Tonnes)

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fresh vegetable production 1000 tonnes
FRESH VEGETABLE PRODUCTION (1000 Tonnes)

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major fruits grown in turkey
Major Fruits Grown in Turkey
  • grape-like fruits (38%)
    • table grapes
    • fresh fig (Bursa Siyahı, Mut)
  • pome fruits (27%)
    • apples (2.5 million ton production/year)
    • pear
    • quince

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fruit production
Fruit Production
  • citrus fruits (2 million tons)
    • oranges
    • soft citrus & lemon species
  • stone fruits (14%)
    • apricots
    • peaches
    • plums
    • cherries

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major vegetables grown in turkey
Major Vegetables Grown in Turkey
  • Vegetables (30 million tons/year)
    • fruit bearing vegetables
      • tomatoes (8.9 million tons)
      • potatoes
      • watermelon
      • melon
      • onion
      • cucumber

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southeastern anatolia project gap
SouthEastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
  • one of the largest irrigation, power production and development projects in the world
  • GAP includes 7.2 million hectares land
  • 3.1 million hectares from this area is suitable for the agriculture
  • grape, olive, pictachio nuts, berries, pomegranate, tomatoes, melon, water melon, cucumner, green pepper and aubergine are the main produce in the GAP region

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GAP

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southeastern anatolia project gap16
SouthEastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
  • approximately 9-10% of the total vegetable production in Turkey is being supplied from GAP region
  • an huge amount of fruit and vegetable production is expected in the coming years in GAP region
  • therefore establishment of cold chain and CA/MAP systems is essential for the future of GAP region

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exports of fresh fruits vegetables by countries 2000 values
Exports of Fresh Fruits & Vegetables by Countries (2000 Values)

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exports of fresh fruit and vegetables 2000 values
Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables (2000 values)

*:1000 Tonnes

**: 1000 US$

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exportation of fresh fruit and vegetables
Exportation of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables
  • Turkey produces 80 types of fresh fruits and vegetables out of 140 products grown in the world
  • Out of 80 types of fresh produce grown in Turkey, 30 kinds of vegetables and 20 kinds of fruits are virtually subject to exports

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exportation of fruits 638 000 ton in 2000
Exportation of Fruits (638,000 Ton in 2000)
  • Citrus fruits (77%)
    • Lemons (Interdonato, Lamas)
    • Oranges (Washington Navel, Shamouti (Jaffa), Valencia)
    • Soft citrus (Satsumas, Clemantines)
    • Grapefruit (Marsh Seedless (white flesh), pink Marsh Seedless (pink flesh)

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exportation of vegetables 420 000 tons in 2000
Exportation of Vegetables (420,000 Tons in 2000)
  • Tomatoes (29%  37 million US$)
  • Onions
  • Potatoes
  • Green peppers
  • Cucumber-Gherkins

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transportation
Transportation
  • Turkey standing at the crossroads of major trade routes between Europe and Asia
  • 90% of the transport of goods is realised via highway transport (60 080 vehicles; tractor, semi-trailer, truck and tanker with a total capacity of 814 126 ton)
  • rail transport can become a competitive alternative to road and air transport

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transportation24
Transportation
  • Turkey has 8430 km of coastline, 15 principal state-owned ports, around 30 municipal wharves, some 35 special prurpose wharves belonging to industrial complexes and a number of private wharves and quays
  • Turkish airlines flies to 75 points abroad and 36 cities within Turkey

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refrigerated storage and warehouses
Refrigerated Storage and Warehouses
  • Refrigerated storage distributed throughout Turkey (estimated existing capacity of 25,000 tonnes)
  • The warehouses in the Marmara region of Turkey has been examined in details with a project executed in TUBITAK-MRC FSTRI in 2001
  • It is concluded that there exists 344 warehouses having total area of 264,741 m2 and volume of 1,413,805.2 m3

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components of quality
COMPONENTS OF QUALITY
  • Appearance (size, shape, color, gloss, defects)
  • Texture (firmness, softness, crispness, mealiness)
  • Flavor (taste and smell, sweetness,sourness,bitterness, aroma, off-flavors)
  • Nutritive value (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins,minerals)
  • Safety (toxicants, contaminants, residues, microbes)
  • Price

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fruit vegetable quality losses
Fruit & Vegetable Quality Losses
  • approximately 40% of the harvested product is lost within the production consumption chain
  • costs the country about 850 million US$/year

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factors contributing the postharvest losses
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING THE POSTHARVEST LOSSES
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Respiration
  • Water loss (transpiration)
  • Metabolism (maturity,ripening)
  • Ethylene
  • Enzymic and chemical changes
  • Mechanical damage
  • Pathological and physiological disorders

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reduce postharvest losses
Reduce Postharvest Losses
  • COOLING is the simplest and most powerful technique to minimize respiration and deterioration
  • another way to minimize deterioration is to remove the ETHYLENE GAS; minimize & control its accumulation bu ensuring adequate ventilation
  • application of modern STORAGE & PACKING technologies
  • application of COLD CHAIN

THEMATIC NETWORK

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Harvesting

  • cleaning
  • sortin, sizing
  • quality grading

preparation for market

  • handling equipment
  • handling practice
  • consumer size package
  • shipping containers
  • bulk containers

packing

  • precooling
  • fumigation

transportation

storage

  • specific requirements for each commodity (T, air circulation, RH%, atmosphere modification, special treatments, etc.)
  • transportation equipment and services

distribution by rail, highway, sea or air

warehousing

  • unloading
  • handlik practices
  • refrigeration requirements
  • consumer packaging
  • unloading and reception
  • refrigeration requirements
  • repackaging
  • delivery to retail stores

distribution to retail stores

retail market

  • unloading and reception
  • protective facilities
  • refrigeration, storage, display areas
  • customer handling

COLD CHAIN

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during cold chain
During Cold Chain
  • Temperature
  • Air temperature at delivery
  • Relative humidity
  • Weight loss
  • Air circulation
  • Storage
  • Stowage
  • Packaging
  • Transportation

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proper postharvest cooling
Proper Postharvest Cooling
  • reduce respiratory activity and degradation by enzymes
  • reduce internal water loss and wilting
  • slow or inhibit the growth of decay-producing microorganisms
  • reduce the production of the natural ripening agent, ethylene
  • provide marketing flexibility by allowing the grower to sell produce at the most appropriate time

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slide34
MAP?
  • Modifying the atmosphere surrounding a food product by vacuum, gas flushing or controlled permeability of the pack

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advantages of map
ADVANTAGES OF MAP
  • extend the shelf-life (50-70%)
  • preserve the fresh state without temperature or chemical treatments
  • controlling the biochemical, enzymatic and microbial actions
  • avoid or decrease the main deteriorations
  • prevent the growth of aerobic spoilage microorganisms causing
    • changes in odour, flavour, colour and texture leading to an overall deterioration in quality

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recommended gas mixtures for map
RECOMMENDED GAS MIXTURES FOR MAP

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packaging materials
PACKAGING MATERIALS
  • When selecting packaging materials for MAP foods consider;
    • resistance to puncture
    • sealing reliability
    • antifog properties
    • carbon dioxide permeability
    • oxygen permeability
    • water transmission rate

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application of map to fruit and vegetables
APPLICATION OF MAP TO FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
  • When the rate of packaging film transmission of O2 and CO2 equals the rate of respiration of the product, an equilibrium concentration of both gases is established

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equilibrium values depend on
EQUILIBRIUM VALUES DEPEND ON
  • the respiration rate of the product
  • fill weight of product
  • the film surface area which is available for gas exchange

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map and ca applications in turkey
MAP and CA Applications in Turkey
  • Although there exist many scientific and practical applications of CA and MAP, requirement of high capital investment is a big problem in Turkey especially in the construction of CA storage rooms

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controlled atmosphere storage
Controlled Atmosphere Storage
  • packaging in an atmosphere where the composition of gases is continuously controlled throughout storage
  • is used primarily for the bulk storage of products and requires constant monitoring and control of the gas composition

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limits for gases used
Limits for Gases Used
  • The limit tolerated contents of O2 and/or CO2 in CA and MAP for most commodities are of the range 1-5% for O2 and 2-15% for CO2

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benefits of ca
Benefits of CA
  • delays aging, ripening and associated changes in product
  • reduces water and weight loss
  • allows longer commercial transit time
  • provides better quality control
  • improves control of insects in some commodities

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postharvest losses and common problems in fresh fruit and vegetables preservation
Postharvest Losses and Common Problems in Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Preservation
  • Harvesting (4-12%)
    • immaturity or overmaturity of the commodity
    • mechanical damage due to improper methods
    • failure to protect the commodity from sun
    • delayes before delivery to packing house or transporting to market

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preparation for market in the field or at the packing house 5 15
Preparation for market(in the field or at the packing house; 5-15%)
  • failure to short-out produce with serious defects and decay
  • inappropriate packing resulting in mechanical damage
  • failure to remove field heat
  • lack of sanitation

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transport 2 8
Transport (2-8%)
  • rough handling causing increased mechanical injury
  • lack of proper management of temperature RH and ventilation during transit
  • mixing of non-compatible commodities in the transport vehicle
  • delayes during transport

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storage 5 15
Storage (5-15%)
  • lack of precooling
  • delay in stacking
  • inefficient cooling system
  • water loss
  • physiological disorders
  • pathological breakdown

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handling of destination 3 10
Handling of destination (3-10%)
  • rough handling during loading and unloading
  • exposure to undesirable environmental condition
  • delayes in getting the commodity to the consumer
  • improper ripening and storage practices
  • lack of sanitation

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handling at home 1 5
Handling at home (1-5%)
  • delays before consumption
  • improper storage

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environmental impact of preservation techniques
Environmental Impact of Preservation Techniques
  • The number of firms which have ISO 9000 Quality System Certificates and ISO 14001 Certificates are rapidly increasing in Turkey
  • Turkish packaging manufacturers follow closely recent international and national developments in environmental issues and comply with environmental legislations and regulations

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environmental impact of preservation techniques51
Environmental Impact of Preservation Techniques
  • Gases which will be reduced include HFC refrigerants and agreements for use of clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydroclorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
  • Although hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) have low Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) they still have high Global Warming Potential (GWP)
  • Refrigerant which have low ODP and low GWP are required which have the same or better performance than traditional halocarbons
  • Secondary refrigerants allow environmentally harmful primary refrigerants to be minimised and contained in a restricted area

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common problems of industrial companies
Common Problems of Industrial Companies
  • experience and technical knowledge is required in order to implement
    • an advisory service to assist farmers and post-harvest handling agencies
    • the management of storage facilities and packing houses
    • the organization of market facilities

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common problems of industrial companies53
Common Problems of Industrial Companies
  • Farmers, producers, traders need training not only in the introduced technologies but also in the need for continuing improvements in marketing
  • General problems are quality, standardization and handling, transport, and storage, lack of export market organizations, insufficient export market information and lack of qualified personnel as foreign market agencies

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problems about market information
Problems about Market Information
  • Farmers need market information in order to plan production and to time harvest dates and postharvest operations; it can also give guidance on time, place and price at which to sell produce
  • Traders will be helped to find markets yielding best returns, and retailers will more easily locate sources of supply
  • Transport operators can use market information in order to schedule staff and vehicles more easily
  • Storage agencies will be able to use their facilities more efficiently if they are more alert to market trends

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problems about market information55
Problems about Market Information
  • Consumers can benefit by the greater competition a market information system generates among retailers and by a greater awareness of price conditions
  • Governments can use market information to develop a sound agricultural policy in regard to food and to monitor national economic development
  • It can also be used to chart development programmes or export drives and even to establish the need for better roads and additional transport

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legistative and legal issues
Legistative and Legal Issues
  • The Turkish food industry and food imports are primarily regulated by three related laws and regulations; the June 2, 1995 Turkish Food Law, the November 16, 1997 Turkish Food Codex, and the June 8, 1998 Food Regulation
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA), General Directorate of Protection and Control, has primary responsibility for production, import, and food safety issues regarding food, packaging material, veterinary products, feed and pesticide products

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legistative and legal issues57
Legistative and Legal Issues
  • In Turkey, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) inspects all food products. Turkish Food Codex (TFC) enforced and related regulations issued for the implementation of the Decree of 560 (Force of Law) Concerning Production, Consumption and Inspection of Foodstuffs (1995)
  • TFC covers technical and hygienic principals of food processing, food additives, residues and contaminants, sampling, labelling, transportation, storage and analyses

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harmonization of turkish legislation with eu legislation
Harmonization of Turkish Legislation with EU Legislation
  • Labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs for sale to be ultimate consumer (79/112/EC; Official Gazette No. 23172 of 16 November 1997)
  • Plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs (90/128/EEC; Official Gazette No. 23172 of 16 November 1997)

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harmonization of turkish legislation with eu legislation59
Harmonization of Turkish Legislation with EU Legislation
  • Monitoring of temperatures in the means of transport, warehousing and storage of quick-frozen foodstuffs (92/1/EEC; Official Gazette No. 23172 of 16 November 1997)
  • Hygiene of foodstuffs (93/43/EEC; Official Gazette No. 23172 of 16 November 1997)

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legistative and legal issues60
Legistative and Legal Issues
  • Free circulation of traditional agricultural products between Turkey and the EU will become possible to the extent that Turkey approximate its agricultural policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU
  • In addition to a laboratory analysis at the time of registration, the law requires products be inspected at the point of entry, wholesale and retail sales

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legistative and legal issues61
Legistative and Legal Issues
  • All packaged products are required to have a licence number issued by the Directorate after reviewing the results of laboratory tests on the product
  • TUBITAK-MRC FSTRI is the member of and has strong collaboration with IIR (International Institute of Refrigeration+) and IARW (International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses) and by this way follows the development in the cold chain and storage systems easily

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future research needs
FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
  • Film permeability data at realistic temperatures between 0 and 20C and realistic RHs between 85 and 95%
  • Respiration rates of fresh and prepared produce under several temperature and MAP conditions
  • Data on the RQ (respiratory quotient, i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed)

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future research needs63
FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS
  • Determining the exact postharvest losses and preventive measures for transportation (optimum parameters)
  • Establishment of cold chain system (model study)
  • Optimisation of parameters for CA, MAP applications for selected crops

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thank you
THANK YOU

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