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JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense Key Issues 1) 1 . Following the US with frustration a ) China Policy 1972 b ) Weak Diplomacy on Okinawa US Base 2 . The Lack of Principles a ) Foreign Aid Policy & Democracy b ) South Africa during Apartheid 3 . Weak Intelligence

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Presentation Transcript
key issues 1
Key Issues 1)
  • 1. Following the US with frustration
    • a) China Policy 1972
    • b) Weak Diplomacy on Okinawa US Base
  • 2. The Lack of Principles
    • a) Foreign Aid Policy & Democracy
    • b) South Africa during Apartheid
  • 3. Weak Intelligence
    • a) Soviet Military Coup against Gorbachev
key issues 2
Key Issues 2)
  • 4. Inward Looking Diplomats
    • Meet Japanese Politicians rather than US VIP
  • 5. Revisionists
    • Rational, Right Wing
  • 6. Misperception: US role in the Japanese security
    • Security Treaty, Base, Atomic Bomb
  • 7. World War II Legacy
  • 8. Trade Surplus & Economic Imperialism?
foreign political relations
Foreign Political Relations
  • 1. Geopolitics
    • a) Island Nation located in the cold spot and then hot spot
    • b) Nationalism: Natural National Border
    • c) Poor Natural Resources
history
History
  • a) Mongolian Attack & Divine Wind “Kamikaze”
  • b) No colonial experience
  • c) Meiji: Rich Nation Strong Army
  • d) Colonization : The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    • (1) Taiwan
    • (2) Korea
    • (3) Manchuria
world war ii legacy in asia
World War II Legacy in Asia
  • (1) Textbook Issues
    • (a) Advance vs Aggression
  • (2) Comfort Women
  • (3) Nanjing Massacre
japan china relations
Japan-China Relations
  • a) Normalization 1972 Nixon and Tanaka
  • b) “Special Historical Relationship”
  • c) Japanese Left and China
  • d) Current IT industrial development
japan soviet russia relations
Japan-Soviet (Russia) Relations
  • Russians negative image:
    • (1) Russo-Japan war
    • (2) Soviet advance after the surrender: 600,000 POW
    • (3) Northern Territory Issue: Kurile
japan and the third world
Japan and the Third World
  • a) JICA aid
  • b) Racism: South Africa
relations with the united states
Relations with the United States
  • a) The Cold War: ally
  • b) Korea War & Vietnam War big demand
  • c) 1970s relation turned tense: economy
  • d) Nixon China & Gold: Rise of Yen values
  • e) 1980s trade conflicts
  • f) 1990s Asian economic crisis
security issues
Security Issues
  • a) Ambivalence: free rider & threat
  • b) Japan’s GNP 1% policy
  • c) The Mutual Security Treaty: For whom?
3 development assistance
3. Development Assistance
  • a) ODA No.1 since 1988
  • b) Tied to its own economic development?
technical cooperation
Technical Cooperation
  • a) Military and Civilian technology
  • b) Better F-15?
  • c) FSX issue “technonationalism”
  • d) Japanese civilian technology in Gulf War
the nuclear issue
The Nuclear Issue
  • a) Nuclear Power Generation & “technonationalism”
  • b) Nuclear Fusion and recent accidents
  • c) Public opposition “Nuclear allergy”
foreign economic relations
Foreign Economic Relations
  • a) 1973 Oil Shock used for improving efficiency
  • b) Non-Tariff Barrier NTB & Japanese custom
  • c) US Market and US interest
  • d) “Rabbit hutch” mentality: High satisfaction & low consumption
  • e) Image of quality of domestic brand: CD players
international trade pressures
International Trade Pressures
  • a) Stock exchange closed for long time until 1985
  • d) Who is forcing to buy? American consumer minds
  • e) Weak open academic research
  • f) Super 301: Republican but tough on Japan
  • g) Structural Impediments Initiative in the 1980s
  • h) Is Japan wrong?
defense
Defense
  • 1. The Myth of Japanese military power
  • 2. Defense Equipment, Business, & Ideology
  • 3. Mongolian invasion & The Opium War
from hot war to cold war
From Hot War to Cold War
  • 1. Article 9 by the United States GHQ
  • 2. Change of International atmosphere
  • 3. the Korean War
  • 4. 1950 Police Reserve
  • 5. 1954 SDF
  • 6. Various opinions toward SDF even within LDP
the japanese defense establishment
The Japanese Defense Establishment
  • a) 1951 the Mutual Security Treaty
  • b) untested military in real fight
  • c) 1976 1% of GNP ceiling
  • d) 3rd Largest Military spending
organization of the military
Organization of the Military
  • a) Quarter of million personnel
  • b) 90% of equipment produced domestically
  • c) Advanced Front-line equipment
  • d) Shortage of Ammunitions
  • e) Subsidizing American forces in Japan
  • f) “nuclear allergy”: Three Non-Nuclear Principles: no manufacture, no introduction, no possession
projecting japanese military power
Projecting Japanese Military Power
  • a) PM Suzuki and Nakasone 1980s: Sea lanes 1000 miles
  • b) Nakasone “Unsinkable Aircraft Career”
japan and international peacekeeping operations
Japan and International Peacekeeping Operations
  • 1. The Gulf War in 1991: No thanks to Japan while 13 billion contribution: checkbook diplomacy
  • 2. PKO under UN charter
  • 3. PKF & Peace Senility
constraints on expanding the military
Constraints on Expanding the Military
  • 1. Public Opinion
    • a) SDF as Disaster relief agency or worse Snow Festival
  • 2. Article 9
    • a) Avoidance of Rule on Constitutionality of SDF
  • 3. Budget Constraints
    • a) 1% 1.006% in 1989
japanese strategy in the 21st century
Japanese Strategy in the 21st Century
  • 1. North Korea’s Nuclear capability
  • 2. Tepodon Missile and vulnerability
  • 3. Yasukuni Shrine Issues