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JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense

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  1. JAPAN: Foreign Relations & Defense

  2. Key Issues 1) • 1. Following the US with frustration • a) China Policy 1972 • b) Weak Diplomacy on Okinawa US Base • 2. The Lack of Principles • a) Foreign Aid Policy & Democracy • b) South Africa during Apartheid • 3. Weak Intelligence • a) Soviet Military Coup against Gorbachev

  3. Key Issues 2) • 4. Inward Looking Diplomats • Meet Japanese Politicians rather than US VIP • 5. Revisionists • Rational, Right Wing • 6. Misperception: US role in the Japanese security • Security Treaty, Base, Atomic Bomb • 7. World War II Legacy • 8. Trade Surplus & Economic Imperialism?

  4. Foreign Political Relations • 1. Geopolitics • a) Island Nation located in the cold spot and then hot spot • b) Nationalism: Natural National Border • c) Poor Natural Resources

  5. History • a) Mongolian Attack & Divine Wind “Kamikaze” • b) No colonial experience • c) Meiji: Rich Nation Strong Army • d) Colonization : The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere • (1) Taiwan • (2) Korea • (3) Manchuria

  6. World War II Legacy in Asia • (1) Textbook Issues • (a) Advance vs Aggression • (2) Comfort Women • (3) Nanjing Massacre

  7. Japan-China Relations • a) Normalization 1972 Nixon and Tanaka • b) “Special Historical Relationship” • c) Japanese Left and China • d) Current IT industrial development

  8. Japan-Soviet (Russia) Relations • Russians negative image: • (1) Russo-Japan war • (2) Soviet advance after the surrender: 600,000 POW • (3) Northern Territory Issue: Kurile

  9. Japan and the Third World • a) JICA aid • b) Racism: South Africa

  10. Relations with the United States • a) The Cold War: ally • b) Korea War & Vietnam War big demand • c) 1970s relation turned tense: economy • d) Nixon China & Gold: Rise of Yen values • e) 1980s trade conflicts • f) 1990s Asian economic crisis

  11. Security Issues • a) Ambivalence: free rider & threat • b) Japan’s GNP 1% policy • c) The Mutual Security Treaty: For whom?

  12. 3. Development Assistance • a) ODA No.1 since 1988 • b) Tied to its own economic development?

  13. Technical Cooperation • a) Military and Civilian technology • b) Better F-15? • c) FSX issue “technonationalism” • d) Japanese civilian technology in Gulf War

  14. The Nuclear Issue • a) Nuclear Power Generation & “technonationalism” • b) Nuclear Fusion and recent accidents • c) Public opposition “Nuclear allergy”

  15. Foreign Economic Relations • a) 1973 Oil Shock used for improving efficiency • b) Non-Tariff Barrier NTB & Japanese custom • c) US Market and US interest • d) “Rabbit hutch” mentality: High satisfaction & low consumption • e) Image of quality of domestic brand: CD players

  16. International Trade Pressures • a) Stock exchange closed for long time until 1985 • d) Who is forcing to buy? American consumer minds • e) Weak open academic research • f) Super 301: Republican but tough on Japan • g) Structural Impediments Initiative in the 1980s • h) Is Japan wrong?

  17. Defense • 1. The Myth of Japanese military power • 2. Defense Equipment, Business, & Ideology • 3. Mongolian invasion & The Opium War

  18. From Hot War to Cold War • 1. Article 9 by the United States GHQ • 2. Change of International atmosphere • 3. the Korean War • 4. 1950 Police Reserve • 5. 1954 SDF • 6. Various opinions toward SDF even within LDP

  19. The Japanese Defense Establishment • a) 1951 the Mutual Security Treaty • b) untested military in real fight • c) 1976 1% of GNP ceiling • d) 3rd Largest Military spending

  20. Organization of the Military • a) Quarter of million personnel • b) 90% of equipment produced domestically • c) Advanced Front-line equipment • d) Shortage of Ammunitions • e) Subsidizing American forces in Japan • f) “nuclear allergy”: Three Non-Nuclear Principles: no manufacture, no introduction, no possession

  21. Projecting Japanese Military Power • a) PM Suzuki and Nakasone 1980s: Sea lanes 1000 miles • b) Nakasone “Unsinkable Aircraft Career”

  22. Japan and International Peacekeeping Operations • 1. The Gulf War in 1991: No thanks to Japan while 13 billion contribution: checkbook diplomacy • 2. PKO under UN charter • 3. PKF & Peace Senility

  23. Constraints on Expanding the Military • 1. Public Opinion • a) SDF as Disaster relief agency or worse Snow Festival • 2. Article 9 • a) Avoidance of Rule on Constitutionality of SDF • 3. Budget Constraints • a) 1% 1.006% in 1989

  24. Japanese Strategy in the 21st Century • 1. North Korea’s Nuclear capability • 2. Tepodon Missile and vulnerability • 3. Yasukuni Shrine Issues