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  1. Building e-learning futures Costruire il futuro dell' eLearning Dr. Gilly Salmon eLearning: una sfida per l’universita Strategie, metodi, prospectiive

  2. Centre for Innovation, Knowledge & Enterprise, Open University Business School Chair Professional Certificate in Management Visiting Professor, Glasgow Caledonian Business School Director ‘All Things in Moderation Ltd’ Dr. Gilly Salmon

  3. Is it all worth while?70 Nobel Laureates:impact of Internet over next 20 years • 87% positive impact to improve education • 91% improve educational opportunities • 69% believe they could have done their work faster (medicine, physics, peace & literature) • www.cisco.com/nobel/survey

  4. this “telephone” has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Western Union memo 1876 ...there’s a world market for about 5 computers. Thomas Watson, Chairman IBM 1943. Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons." Popular Mechanics, 1949 ...data processing is a fad that won't last out the year." Editor of business books Prentice Hall, 1957. There’s no reason for any individual to have a computer in their homes, Ken Olson, Chairman, Digital Corp. 1977 640K ought to be enough for anybody." Bill Gates, 1981. Addressing the future of technology

  5. The 21st Century: the discontinuities body • adoption of technology • highly unpredictable time mind real technologies Apples don’t grow on trees… Chips aren’t a high fat food… Gates don’t open… Windows don’t offer a better view virtual space humans

  6. What’s the problem in Universities? • Traditions of knowledge transmission & acquisition are challenged • neatly packaged client/customers/student “needs” do not present themselves. • the use of technologies grows in a way that has little to do with demographics • Terrific opportunities pass us by in a haze of commercialism..or a flash in the pan of new initiative exhaustion

  7. Commercial investment in technology likely to continue Virtual educational institutions & consortiums ‘in trouble’ Leaves way open for embedding technology in teaching Decisions are difficult- what technologies will sustain, be reliable, upgradable, adaptable, suitable, make a difference? What technologyWhich direction? • We can be sure: • all university staff will need to be: • Flexible in their approach to teaching • Able to work electronically with each other

  8. look at possibilities creatively explore uncertainties & complexity undertake strategic conversations make choices prepare! These scenarios include role of research, technologies, teaching philosophies, assessment & role of online teachers/trainers/academics relevance to higher education A ‘solution’ ? :Scenarios

  9. 4 e-learning scenarios Planet ofContenteous Planet Instantia Nomadict Planet Planet of Cafélattia

  10. Choices based on media profiles online resource availability league tables Planet of Contenteous Transmission model of teaching: content rich Big Brother learning Virtuality, simulations Technology as a delivery system; content & learning management systems, multi media, Digital radio DVDs, digital & cable TV. standards

  11. Glamorous educational broadcasting? • Targeting all adults • Reach is the greatest of all technologies • 250,000 rang for help after a single weekend of brief TV spots (but the educational provision needs to be on popular channels) • BUT the industry faces major changes in ownership & influence • Media threatens traditional educational providers • And it’s net-crazy New communication bill in UK

  12. Contenteous Assessment Diagnostic tests determine content pathways reproduction & critique frequent automated testing sophisticated feedback & guidance Technology: very good navigation, multi media capacity ‘eye into reality’ simulations virtuality asynchronicity & synchronicity automatic tracking & testing extremely robust excellent scheduling

  13. Planet of Contenteous Economies of scale through reduced interaction stand & deliver Teaching: content experts build online libraries & resource pathways become e-lecturers captivate big audiences (support of the elite few needs high level of research) stand & deliver content is king

  14. Contenteous

  15. Tick-tock Planet Instantia choice: Just for me, just in time, just for now, just enough Computer based courses from desks & learning centres IT as tools learning objects rule! Speed of mind absorption= speed of technology E-learning Continuous, applied, Flexible

  16. Learning Objects The technology delivered learning of tomorrow will be assembled, not authored from large reservoirs of content presented to the learner…and more emphasis will be on building knowledge bases that can be published ‘on the fly’ Elliot Masie Learning objects may be constructed through combining several elements, such as HTML, graphics, audio, video, documents, Java, to provide interactivity Charles Jennings

  17. exchanging learning objects Paulo’s students Paulo Teaches computing learning objects repository

  18. Franz Cross cultural marketing Maria Systems analysis learning objects repository Report writing Analysing data Compare & contrast Compare contrast Analysing data Report development Presenting inf Presenting inf Equality & diversity Understanding culture

  19. Planet Instantia How sustainable? Tick-tock Technology available 24/7/52 sophisticated metagged data bases easily manipulated highly reliable and scalable quick easy customisation assessment: authenticity, tracking, links to performance assessment submittable in different media

  20. Planet Instantia Tick-tock Teaching: support autonomous learning, available 24 hours a day, synchronously & asynchronously focus on: skills development & adoption of in-house knowledge cultures

  21. Nomadict Mobilised learning for the mobile society Wearable, portable & embedded technologies: PDAs, Palms tops, Tablet PCs mobile phones with keyboards GPS, wireless & personal national & international comms networks biometrics provide security of identity truly any time any place learning, learner chooses style, focused learning components interact with learners’ environments & provide pacing,

  22. High ownership- all ages groups & both sexes 40% over 65s have mobile, as many 45-55 aas teenagers Increased time communicating (men & women) Class and wealth influence but still 51% of low income & take yp high Innovation & combination Phones gobbling up other products Cameras, diaries, calculators, internet, MP3 20 different products About Mobile telephones: A transformational technology study 10th Nov 2002 (UK) Guardian ICM opinion poll Behaviours: Changed the way people communicate Saved lives Become style icons New sub-strata of language

  23. Nomadict Technology Universities server farms Halls of residents become satellite stations no tolerance for old style VLEs low cost streamed learning Assessment: small bites, highly transferable mainly outcomes, projects student designed assessments (with helpers) biometrics provide security of identity

  24. Nomadict Mobile, portfolio teaching work with varying cultures & traditions, create tiny chunks of learning activities, relate to students without meeting, promote student ownership of learning process

  25. gps in the service of Higher Education E- moderator lecture hall 2010

  26. Nomadict

  27. Planet of Cafélattia Who’s in charge? social context for learning, acquisition, argument & application, find & interact with like-minded others, free expression, intellectual extension by dialogue reflection, professional communities, sharing of tacit knowledge assessment is negotiated: knowledge construction & problem solving skills, Developed Internet (beyond the browser!) technologies as mediating devices, as contexts & community space, asychronous & synchronous groupware, clicks & mortar, hi & lo bandwidth

  28. Planet of Cafélattia Technology mediating device between people free expression through text and voice sharing of contexual & tacit knowledge reflection & creativity tools group work space sophisticated document sharing assessment is negotiated: knowledge construction & complex problem solving skills, will professions merge?

  29. Planet of Cafélattia teaching: think global, local action, Partnerships between teachers & media developers Mentoring and expert moderating, build online Groups & communities intelligent agents, Lead information exchange & knowledge construction processes

  30. can caffelattia suceed?

  31. Low cost-teacher led eLearning:using E-tivities • Structured participative group work online • Motivating,engaging & purposeful • Based on interaction between learners/students & active contribution • Designed & led by an teacher/e-moderator • Usually asynchronous (i.e over time) • Based on simple text based bulletin boards • On or offsite, blended or online only • One-off or built into a programme Low cost

  32. Everything needed to take part in one message! Key features of e-tivities • 1. Illustrative title • 2. Small piece of information, stimulus or challenge (the ‘spark) • 3. Online action which includes individual participants posting a response (the ‘invitation’) • 4. Interactive or participative element- such as responding to the postings of others (the Action & Interaction) • 5. Elapsed time allowed, posting times required • 6. Summary, feedback or critique from e-moderator

  33. Janison

  34. spark invitation interaction

  35. FirstClass

  36. Example Cafélattia course in 2002:first two hundred participants Countries UK 50 Australia 56 S. America 32 Cont. W Europe 24 N. America 16 Asia 14 Completion? Full (certificate)144 good 28 dropped out (typically 2-3 weeks in) 28 Educational Sectors Universities 68 College/vocational 56 Professional networks 38 Corporate 26 Schools 12 English as 1st language 156 English as 2nd language 44 Reasons for participation strategic 24 Skills 178

  37. Making a difference

  38. Explore the scenarios: disciplines, cultures, traditions Be clear about your own (learning & teaching) objectives) and distinctiive markets Choose based on “fit for purpose” Learn by doing, share, collaborate Make a distinction- find your niche- make a difference Guide the consequences Choose a scenarios develop online teaching skills (e-moderating)

  39. Changing practice for qualityin Higher Education HE staff as the Solution (not the problem) professionalism Hi tolerance organisation restructure control Innovators Adopters (1&2) exploration: how & why mindset change (2) teaching Practice/ discipline funding/ resources change agents acceptance mindsets change (1) Scale up operational changes lo tolerance implementaion 1= understanding 2= action Later adopters

  40. Skills for university teachers in the knowledge media age Prerequisites! Flexibility towards online teaching & learning, Empathy with online learners, Willingness to be trained & developed Develop fast! online communication & group skills, pacing & use of time online, ability to teach & e-moderate cross-culturally & value diversity relate to learners without meeting assess online Train online to work online train develop recruit

  41. University teachers become autotelic! • An autotelic is someone good at translating threats into challenges. • They constantly create focus, short-term goals • Give close attention to the group they are working with. • They visualise the group’s success & engage it in achieving it create flow

  42. Imagine your own scenario? To make a difference faster: focus on the human intervention not the technology From Built to Last J. Collins & J.I. Porras HarperBusiness 1997

  43. 4 e-learning scenarios What Planet are you on? Are management and academics on different planets? What about IT professionals and lecturers? What about teachers and technology providers?

  44. The Web is not good as a broadcast medium People use the Web for self publishing and interaction Look at what your learners use for their everyday lives/work =use for learning Learning happens with others If working alone, learners need strong motivation, participation, emotions and time ‘management’ 4 e-learning scenarios How will you choose? some clues! All the scenarios need E-moderators

  45. Time for challenge Questions Comments?

  46. More? Thanks for your attention • G.K.Salmon@open.ac.uk • http://oubs.open.ac.uk/gilly • http://oubs.open.ac.uk/e-moderating • http://www.e-tivities.com