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Patient Education

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    1. Patient Education George Ann Daniels, MS, RN Slide Wit and WisdomSlide Wit and Wisdom

    2. Learning Acquisition of a skill or knowledge by practice, study, or instruction Ways to learn Memory Intuitively Simple to complex Knowledge base to build on Prior knowledge or experience

    3. Learning Approached Pedagogy Traditional classroom instructions for children Teacher in control Determines what to teach, methods, motivation of students Learner is in a passive role Ped-o-gogyPed-o-gogy

    4. Andragogy Adult learning Based on individual need to know Developmental task Social role Adults learn better when information R/T their lives or problems Focus is on needs and personal goals An-dra-go-gyAn-dra-go-gy

    5. Learning Domains Blooms Taxonomy, 1956 Learning encompasses three domains Cognitive Domain Thinking Facts, conclusions, decisions Simple to complex Basic facts leads to application of the learning process EG- Teaching a newly diagnosed breast Cancer patient about the different treatment options.EG- Teaching a newly diagnosed breast Cancer patient about the different treatment options.

    6. Affective Domain Learning based on emotions or feelings Changes beliefs, attitudes, values Psychomotor Muscular movements resulting from learning skills and task Best gage of psychomotor learning Return demonstration. Affective- exploring surgical options for breast CA lumpectomy vs mastectomy Psychomotor- teaching BSE Motor skillsAffective- exploring surgical options for breast CA lumpectomy vs mastectomy Psychomotor- teaching BSE Motor skills

    7. The client must go through all learning domains for learning to happen EG: BSE=detection of lump=information on treatment=decision regarding management Why do we teach clients? Reduces cost, clients demand it, focus on self careWhy do we teach clients? Reduces cost, clients demand it, focus on self care

    8. Purpose of Patient Teaching Wellness promotion Optimum health and function Change unhealthy habit Prevent bad habits from forming Disease Prevention Knowledge or skills used for early detection or prevention of disease Restoration Disruption of health yielding limited disability or function Promotion of coping Ability to cope with new or frightening procedure Adjust to new life style Body image change Disease prevention: BSE, testicular exams Restoration- Rehab, TCDB, pain scale, splinting Coping- new procedure- giving insulin injections Adjustment- learning a new diet for DM body image- Mastectomy or amputeeDisease prevention: BSE, testicular exams Restoration- Rehab, TCDB, pain scale, splinting Coping- new procedure- giving insulin injections Adjustment- learning a new diet for DM body image- Mastectomy or amputee

    9. Learning Readiness Motivation The drive or incentive to learn Recognizes the need to know the information Things that effect motivation Assess what the client values Compliance Compliant Follow the recommended treatment plan Non-compliant Does not follow recommended treatment plan Not linked with lack of knowledge Readiness- willing and ready to learn Active involvement in the planning and this leads to retention of material Physical ability to focus on teaching, IE pain, fatigue, immobility Emotional- anxious, depressed, or grieving Cognitive- think clearly. Ie analgesia or anesthesia, dementia, alz. Client values:Pregnant women quits smoking to protect her unborn child Compliance- follow diet, medicine, and exercise triangle for DM Non-compliant-takes medication only does not do the rest Feedback- relates to the clients performanceReadiness- willing and ready to learn Active involvement in the planning and this leads to retention of material Physical ability to focus on teaching, IE pain, fatigue, immobility Emotional- anxious, depressed, or grieving Cognitive- think clearly. Ie analgesia or anesthesia, dementia, alz. Client values:Pregnant women quits smoking to protect her unborn child Compliance- follow diet, medicine, and exercise triangle for DM Non-compliant-takes medication only does not do the rest Feedback- relates to the clients performance

    10. Sensory and Physical State Vision, hearing Arthritis Decreased concentration Literacy level Illiteracy- inability to read or write Assess your clients level Decreased concentration-medicated for pain or fatigue Literacy- 1 out of 5 are below 5th grade level Does the client pleasure read Have the client read something-menuDecreased concentration-medicated for pain or fatigue Literacy- 1 out of 5 are below 5th grade level Does the client pleasure read Have the client read something-menu

    11. Types of Learners Age Developmental status that assist the teaching approach Understanding of current health ID misinformation/ knowledge deficit Health beliefs/practices Old time remedy Cultural factors Economic factors Financially unable to maintain proper care Learning styles Visual auditory, tactile Support System Assistance with maintenance of skills and/or life-style change Age- 2yr old vs 20 yr old, older adults need good explanation and written material Cultural factors- clients beliefs and practices r/t diet life style and illness. EG indian girl and medicine women Economic- unable to buy medicineAge- 2yr old vs 20 yr old, older adults need good explanation and written material Cultural factors- clients beliefs and practices r/t diet life style and illness. EG indian girl and medicine women Economic- unable to buy medicine

    12. Teaching Strategies Assess learning style Visual Auditory Hands on Simple to complex Repetition Visual- pamphlets, role playing Auditory- tapes Hands on= demonstration Simple to complex- Builds on previous knowledge, provides a sense of accomplishment, Eg: reading a syringe prior to drawing up the solution Repetition- the more often you do this the better you getVisual- pamphlets, role playing Auditory- tapes Hands on= demonstration Simple to complex- Builds on previous knowledge, provides a sense of accomplishment, Eg: reading a syringe prior to drawing up the solution Repetition- the more often you do this the better you get

    13. Developmental/Health Concerns Cognitive Ability Think, reason, and use language. Age may or may not reflect cognitive ability Unable to read

    14. Psychomotor ability Muscular strength Motor coordination Energy Sensory acuity Muscular strength- unable to lift self out of bath tub Motor Coordination- gross motor- walking, fine motor- using utensils, writing Energy- limited energy- COPD client Sensory- Visual impairment Muscular strength- unable to lift self out of bath tub Motor Coordination- gross motor- walking, fine motor- using utensils, writing Energy- limited energy- COPD client Sensory- Visual impairment

    15. Optimum Teaching Client Rested Comfortable Family/caregivers Timed without interruptions Good timing 20-30 minutes Not before major event Comfortable- no pain Interruptions- not around meals, visiting hours Timing not after newly informed client of having CAComfortable- no pain Interruptions- not around meals, visiting hours Timing not after newly informed client of having CA

    16. Learning barriers Anxiety, worry, fear Pain Language/beliefs

    17. Education through the life span Newborn/infants Learn by interactions with their environment Stimulated environment fosters cognitive learning Teaching is directed to the parents/caregivers

    18. Toddler Learn through play Trust Answer questions immediately in language they understand Special words for certain body parts Dont lie to the toddler, if it hurts,it hurtsDont lie to the toddler, if it hurts,it hurts

    19. Preschoolers Limit teaching to 10 minutes Restless Learn by doing Let the child handle the equipment School aged children Understand cause and effect Limit teaching to20 minutes Color books and written materials Reward learning Cause and effect- I have to keep my cast dry in order for my fracture to mendCause and effect- I have to keep my cast dry in order for my fracture to mend

    20. Adolescents Open and honest teaching Keep confidences If necessary to break, explain why Include goals/planning Independence 45-50 minute sessions

    21. Adults Motivation by teaching that enhances or maintains self-esteem Straight forward teaching Younger adults eager to learn Middle adults more aware of health problems and do not take health for granted Involved in all aspects of teaching 1 hour sessions Practice in privatePractice in private

    22. Older adults Motivation Relate learned knowledge to improvement of quality of life New knowledge will improve independence Assess physiologic changes Short term memory loss Teaching the older adult Craven 467