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marketing. Communication – The process of transmitting ideas and information about the nature of your organization and the issues it deals with . An ongoing, core activity that is key to sustaining an organization.

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Communication – The process oftransmitting ideas and information about the nature of your organization and the issues it deals with. An ongoing, core activity that is key to sustaining an organization.

Marketing – The processes and activities that contribute to your organization’s public image, which, when developed effectively—and reinforced by the good work of your staff—helps earn the trust and confidence of beneficiaries, local leaders and donors.

Promotion – Any type of tactic other than advertising (e.g., special events, posters, T-shirts, flyers) used by a marketer (e.g., an NGO) to increase the awareness of a product, service or idea among specific target audiences.

Why is it important for ngos
Why is it important for NGOs

  • Marketing is more than Advertisement.

  • It is everything that contributes to your organization’s public image

  • Effective marketing can improve your organization’s ability:

    • To attract funding,

    • Serve more beneficiaries

    • Advance your mission and

    • Enhance your NGO's sustainability.

Developing a communication plan
Developing a Communication Plan

  • A communication plan is a road map that provides direction on:

    • How to shape your image,

    • Create demand for your services and

    • Build relationships with key target audiences.

Communication plan
Communication Plan

  • Like a project work plan, a communication plan lays out:

    • Strategic objectives,

    • Activities or tactics to achieve those objectives,

    • How these objectives and activities are supported and,

    • Expected outcomes (“targets”) against which you can measure the success of each activity.

Communication plan1
Communication Plan

Developing a communication plan for your organization should involve a cross-section of staff who participate in various activities, including program and financial managers.

From the start, look beyond the beneficiaries of a single program to also include communication with other groups, such as donors, other NGOs and potential volunteers.

The plan defines what you want from your communication and what you need to do to get it.


As with any planning process, it starts with answering some basic questions:

  • Why do we want to communicate with our community? (goals)

  • What do we hope to achieve? (outcomes)

  • Whom do we want to communicate it to? (audience)

  • What do we want to communicate? (message)

  • Who will communicate the message (messengers)

  • How do we want to communicate it? (channels)

  • The answers to these questions become your action plan. The next steps involve developing effective materials, disseminating the message, evaluating your efforts, adjusting as needed and sustaining the effort.

  • Defining communication objectives
    Defining Communication Objectives basic questions:

    • When you create a public program, the first thing you do is learn about the people and the area your program is targeting.

    • Similarly, in marketing, you also start by thinking about with whom you wish to communicate outside your organization, such as:

      • Beneficiaries (existing and potential)

      • Donors (existing and potential)

      • Volunteers (existing and potential)


    • Next, write out in the simplest of terms exactly what you want to communicate to each group.

    • For example:

      We want to let potential beneficiaries know:

      • What services we offer;

      • Why they need these services, especially how they will benefit from them; and

      • Who is making this work possible (i.e., giving credit to the donor).


    • Than Organize your stakeholder specific objectives into goal specific objectives.

    • These help define your communication goals. Much like the “strategic objectives” in your work plan, you will next want to develop one or more “activities” aimed at achieving each objective.

    • For Example

      • Growth: membership growth through better marketing and NFA training

      • Involvement: increased member satisfaction and involvement

      • Recognition: positioning of IFUW as a major force for education and gender equity worldwide

      • Leverage: increased effectiveness of actions, and use of resources within the organization

    Creating communication activities
    Creating Communication Activities specific objectives.

    • When thinking about each objective, consider how you can best get your message to the targeted group.

      • What language(s) do they speak?

      • Where and how can you communicate with them—in other words,

      • what is the best way to “get in front of them” with your message?

      • What cultural considerations should you be aware of?

  • Then, just as you do when creating a work plan, design “SMART” communication activities – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-Bound. Do not forget to include budget considerations, sufficient staff to be effective, best practices and regulations in your plan.

  • Commonly used communication devices
    Commonly Used communication Devices specific objectives.

    • Annual Reports

    • Flyers

    • Banners

    • Walk Chalking

    • Posters

    • Logo

    • Workshops and Seminars

    • Press Releases, News Items and Media Coverage

    • Websites

    • Marked Items

    • Walks

    • Research reports

    Expected outcomes
    Expected Outcomes specific objectives.

    Much like creating “targets” in your work plan, be sure your plan includes expected outcomes with specific timelines. In addition, for each activity.

    Assign responsibility for monitoring its execution and outcomes to a specific staff member.

    Examples of expected outcomes
    Examples of expected outcomes specific objectives.

    New beneficiary enrolment in our program will increase by 25% over the year as a result of our Services Promotion activity. Responsible person: Technical Lead.

    All donor-funded commodities will be marked according to the marking plan within 1 business day of receipt. Responsible person: Procurement Manager.

    Over the next year, staff members will participate in a minimum of three forums to share best practices and lessons learned from our project with the NGO community in country. Responsible Person: Executive Director.

    Once complete, share the communication plan with your entire staff, walking them through the specific aspects related to their jobs. Giving each the means to communicate effectively about your organization will help reinforce your value to beneficiaries and other target audiences.

    What skills does ngo need for marketing
    What Skills does NGO Need for Marketing? specific objectives.

    • A big number of NGOs collaboration i.e. grant emulation, charitable donations, social orders, lack of trust between NGOs, lack of cross-sectoral (state structures, business structures and Mass Media) require from NGO leader the following skills:

      • To find a position of an organisation on its specific market;

      • To distinguish clients and donors needs;

      • To formulate NGO demand;

      • To extend own convictions and to gain new supporters

    Non commercial marketing
    Non-Commercial Marketing specific objectives.

    Marketing of services

    NGO activity can be represented in general as a kind of activity, offering a wide spectrum of services. Marketing services have four characteristics, which should be taken into consideration, while making marketing programmes:

    1. Non-palpable character of the services

    Sense proof (we cannot taste or touch them) ; appeal to a customers previous experience.

    2. Inseparability from a source

    A service is inseparable from its source, a man or a machine.

    3. Unstable quality

    quality of services depends on different, independent from each other factors (professionalism, time and place).

    4. A service cannot be preserved.

    Marketing of ideas
    Marketing of ideas specific objectives.

    Generally, any kind of marketing can be called marketing of ideas.

    Nowadays marketing of NGO ideas (such as different companies anti-smoking, anti-poverty, anti-drugs and so on) gains more and more importance. This sphere of marketing of ideas is called public marketing.

    Public marketing
    Public marketing specific objectives.

    Public marketing aims at changing public attitude towards important problems of our society.

    This branch of marketing is very young, but there are a lot of fields of human activity (including NGOs) where it can be applied.

    Over the course of time, contribution from this kind of marketing to achievements of public changes will be enormous.

    Marketing of interaction
    Marketing of interaction specific objectives.

    Marketing of interaction develops skills of effective work with potential consumers.

    NGO services are evaluated not only according to their technical quality but also according to functional quality (the way they were presented).

    Concepts of marketing
    Concepts of Marketing specific objectives.


    • Marketing tools, which help an organisation to reach its goals on a target market.

      Traditional marketing-mix

    • According to G. McCarty, marketing-mix has four components: a product (it can be a service), price, place and promotion.

      Service marketing-mix

    • In the sphere of services marketing-mix includes more components, than traditional marketing-mix, they are: staff, material indicators (something, which can improve quality of services) and a presentation method.

    Importance of marketing
    Importance of Marketing specific objectives.

    • Marketing Helps NGOs in:

      • Creating Image.

      • Spreading the word or message of the NGO, and causing social change.

      • Attracting Donors, Fundraising and Grant Writing.

      • Attracting Volunteers.

      • Creating Linkages.

      • Lobbying

    Important marketing activities in ngos
    Important Marketing Activities in NGOs specific objectives.

    • Campaigning

    • Fundraising

    • Releasing Press Releases

    • Lobbying

    • Linkages Creation

    • Grant Writing

      But at the heart of All Marketing is Strong Branding and Image Creating Activities.

    Branding your program
    Branding Your Program specific objectives.

    Branding is the process of developing and using images and words, such as logos and slogans, to create an identity for a product or service.

    A brand is the visual representation of that identity that helps people distinguish one thing from another; for example, Coca-Cola from Fanta; USAID from DFID.

    There are two aspects of branding: as an element that communicates the identity of your organization/program and as a donor requirement.

    Branding Seems intimidating but can be done.

    The aim is to Create Brand Associations.

    Developing your brand
    Developing Your Brand specific objectives.

    Involve a cross-section of staff and volunteers in the process below.

    Also, do not forget to take into consideration the branding and marking requirements of donors and partner organizations.

    Ask Yourself:

    Who are your beneficiaries? Note any language, cultural and other concerns they might have in relation to seeking your services, such as maintaining confidentiality or avoiding stigma and discrimination.


    2. What is the essence of what you do? Summarize your program’s mission in one sentence, by trying to capture its high-level objective. For example:

    “The _____ project aims to improve the lives of women in the XYZ region by providing them with comprehensive, quality _______ services.”

    3. How do you want your beneficiaries to feel about your program? Look at your program from the point-of-view of your beneficiaries.

    • To get at their feelings and perceptions, ask yourself; "If the program had a personality, what would it be?" Examples may be “safe, trustworthy, confidential, helpful, makes me feel better, etc.”

    Create associations
    Create Associations program’s mission

    • Primary Associations:

      • Name

      • Logo

      • Slogan

    • Secondary Associations:

      • Founder

      • Cause

      • Events

      • Partners

    Naming your program
    Naming Your Program program’s mission

    • With the information in hand, name your organization or program. There is no correct formula for coming up with a name. However, you may not want be literal:

    • For example, a potential beneficiary might not want to openly identify himself by walking into an office with a sign that says, “HIV/AIDS Services for High-Risk Individuals.”

    • The name can be a simple one or an acronym. It may be in English or the native language where you are implementing your program.


    Avoid excessively long names; your program name should be something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    Do an internet search on your proposed name to see if another group has already taken the name you wish to use;

    Avoid acronyms that do not flow; for example, YHPD (Youth Health Drop-In Program) may be better called HEDIPY (Health Drop-In Program for Youth).

    Adding a graphic identity or logo
    Adding a Graphic Identity or Logo something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    Consider what visual images might represent your program name or draw on the adjectives and objectives that describe the character or personality of the organization or program that you want to project.

    It is a good idea to test your brand, especially if you are implementing in a language and culture different from your native tongue. Ask native speakers for their feedback.

    Once you develop the brand name and logo, it is time to integrate them, along with the identity elements of your donors, into your public communications and your program deliverables.

    Examples something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    Working with a donor s brand
    Working with a Donor’s Brand something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    Working with donor, now or in the future, you must develop and implement a branding strategy that meets the donor's requirements.

    Even if your donor does not require one, it is a good practice to develop one so that your staff and sub-partners are aware of your policies.

    Branding strategy
    Branding Strategy something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    Branding Implementation Plan (BIP) that outlines how the program will be promoted to the public; and

    A Marking Plan (MP) that identifies the specific programs, projects, activities, public communications or commodities that are to be visibly marked with the funder’s identity

    The bip must describe
    The BIP must describe something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD):

    How the donor’s identity is to be promoted and communicated to beneficiaries and host country citizens;

    • How the organization plans to publicize the program, e.g., through press releases, radio interviews, web site, etc;

    • What key milestones are to be highlighted and publicized, for example, launching the program, announcing research findings, publishing reports, announcing project completion;

    • How donors will be identified; and

    • How donors will be acknowledged.

    Campaigning techniques
    Campaigning Techniques something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    1. Letter writing

    • You can write a letter as an individual, raising your concerns with decision-makers or developing contacts. This can often be an effective way of drawing attention to a certain situation.

      2. Letter writing campaigns

    • A large number of letters can be a good way of demonstrating the extent of awareness and concern with the issue. The best type of model is where the basic facts are the same on each letter, but there is room for people to include a personal message. It is important that letters highlight individual concerns as the person receiving the letters will pay much less attention to them if they all look the same.

      3. Postcards

    • Pre-printed postcards can be another way of gathering support for your campaign. The postcards should carry the basic facts of the campaign. On the other side you can have anything from attention grabbing picture to a direct campaign message. Postcards can be distributed in various methods, such as on campaign stalls, inserted in newsletters


    4. Celebrity support something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • Getting well-known celebrities to support your campaign can help influence opinions of others on issues. Identified “role models” can increase awareness and support for your campaign.

      5. Petitions

    • Petitions can be an effective and cheap way of rallying support for your campaign. They can also be a very useful method for showing how large your support is, especially if you get as many people as possible to sign.


    6. Leaflets/Flyers something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • Leafleting can be an effective way to raise the profile of your issue. You can present information about your campaign in a simple and accessible way. Leaflets might be useful if you plan to have a stand on campus, particularly if you are trying to get people to sign a petition. Some tips on making leaflets:» Try to limit the information to three key points. » Put details on any meetings, events etc clearly on the leaflet. » Always include the contact details of your organisation, charity number etc.

      7. Panel Debate/Guest Speaker

    • Make sure you are clear about the purpose of the event you want to hold and what you want to achieve with it. Speakers could involve anyone, however well-known speakers who have an interest in your campaign will draw more attention and press coverage of the event.


    7. Holding a demonstration or a lobby something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • These can be a great way to get publicity, especially if a large number of people attend. Always think about how others will perceive your action, and whether this will help or hinder your campaign. Send out a press release before the event to make sure that the student press know about it should they want to report on it.

      8. Direct action

    • This is a campaigning method where the people involved take action which has a direct impact on the situation. For example, staging a sit-in or boycotting goods. Direct action may involve breaking the law. If you are in any doubt, you should seek legal advice before taking direct action.

      9. Using the media

    • The media is one of the best ways of reaching big audiences and getting your campaigning messages across. Newspapers, radio and television are the main ways that people find out about issues that concern them. There are many reasons why you might want to seek publicity for your campaigning activities: » to publicise an event you have organised;» to encourage people to support you; and» to share with people what you have or are about to achieve. Case studies are a very effective way to get people interested.

    Writing a press release
    Writing A Press Release something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • When you start to write a press release it can help to write down a list of everything you want to say.

    • Remember to include the following:

      » what is happening?

      » why it’s happening?

      » when it’s happening?

      » where it’s happening?

      » who is involved?

    • Put the most important information in the first two paragraphs, with more detail and background information coming later in the text.

    • Always keep any press release short and to the point. Journalists will receive many press releases and won’t read through long wordy text.

    • Keep it as a News item and don’t Make it an Advertising.

    Fundraising something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • In these times of increasing community needs and limited resources, non profit organizations must spend significant amounts of time and energy raising funds.

    • Each organization should begin by developing and implementing a comprehensive fundraising planning process.

    • This plan should include several components:

      • Outlining the role of board members in the fundraising process.

      • Setting the role of staff members in the fundraising process.

    Fundraising something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • Encouraging community volunteers to participate actively in fundraising.

    • Developing fundraising programs that appeal to the public’s charitable nature.

    • Planning fundraising appeals that stress the benefits to the giver.

    • Instituting an effective public relations campaign that precedes the fundraising efforts.

    • Holding an open house to introduce potential donors to your program.

    Fundraising something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    • Analyzing other community fundraising drives and their successes and failures.

    • Dividing fundraising prospects into those to visit, those to call, and those to receive a mail solicitation.

    • Dividing fundraising prospects into those to visit, those to call, and those to receive a mail solicitation.

    • Asking for community investments from individuals.

    Active board participation
    Active Board Participation something people can easily remember; (E.g. I2HD)

    For major fundraising to be successful, every board member must be involved in some way.

    This requirement should be a prerequisite for board membership. When potential board members are recruited for membership, they should be informed that participation in fundraising is required.

    As fundraising reports are given at board meetings, the requirement for board participation should be stressed.

    One effective way of implementing the requirement of active participation of every board member in fundraising is to list various alternatives for involvement and ask individual board members to choose which tasks they wish to perform.


    • For example, as the planning begins for fundraising, board members might be given the choice of these tasks:

      • Serving on the Planning Committee.

      • Developing mailing lists.

      • Writing a press release.

      • Assisting with the mailing.

      • Making arrangements with the event site.

      • Soliciting ads for the ad book.

      • Selling tickets to individuals.

      • Visiting companies to encourage sponsorships.

      • Volunteering for various tasks on the day of the event.

    Active staff members
    Active Staff Members members might be given the choice of these tasks:

    • For major fundraising to be successful, all staff members should be required to participate in fundraising efforts.

    • While participation would be mandatory, employees would be paid for their participation.

    • Fundraising responsibilities would be a clearly defined part of every staff member’s job description

    • Staff assignments should include:

      • Keeping comprehensive records of all contributors and contributions.


    • Making certain that checks and cash are deposited in the bank as soon as possible after they are received.

    • Keeping accurate bank records of all deposits.

    • Developing detailed budgets for every special event.

    • Keeping track of receipts and expenditures for all special events and comparing them to budget estimates.

    • Making accurate lists of all volunteers and the specific assignments they undertook.

    • Keeping the master copy of all funding documents such as brochures and flyers.

    Active non board volunteers
    Active Non Board Volunteers bank as soon as possible after they are received.

    • Throughout the year, board and staff members should recruit volunteers to assist in fundraising.

    • Because fundraising is extremely time-consuming, a large corps of volunteers is needed to supplement the board and staff members who will assist.

    • Efforts should be made throughout the year to recruit volunteers.



    Some general rules apply for requesting volunteers to help with fundraising:

    • Try to have the request come from an individual who knows the individual being asked to volunteer, rather than from a stranger.

    • If the request is made in person, it increases the likelihood that it will be granted. The second choice would be a phone request. If an e-mail or mail request for help is made, it should be followed up by a phone call.


    Be as specific as possible about what you are requesting. How many hours are required? To perform what task or tasks? At what location? what dates?

    Stress that training and supervision in carrying out specific tasks will be provided.

    Follow up promptly when any individual volunteers. If an individual lists his or her name on a volunteer sign-up sheet, for example, contact that individual within a day to make future arrangements