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LIMBIC SYSTEM. History. Paul Broca (1824-1880): 1878: “ le grand lobe limbique ” Refers to a ring of gray matter on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres. James Papez (1883-1958):

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history
History
  • Paul Broca (1824-1880):

1878: “le grand lobe limbique”

Refers to a ring of gray matter on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres.

  • James Papez (1883-1958):

1930’s: defined a limbic system that might underlie the relationship between emotion and memory (Papez’ circuit).

components
Components
  • Amygdaloid body
  • Hippocampus (“seahorse”)
  • Cingulate gyus
  • Parahippocampal gyrus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Mamillary bodies
  • Anterior nucleus of thalamus
functions
Functions
  • “Emotional brain

Emotional and motivational aspects of behavior.

Provides emotional component to learning process:

Especially the amygdala.

  • Associated with memory

Especially the hippocampus.

  • Associated with pain/pleasure, rage
amygdala
Amygdala
  • Large nuclear group in temporal lobe.
  • Afferents:

Olfactory tract

Solitary nucleus

Parabrachial nucleus

Limbic neocortex:

Cingulate gyrus

Parahippocampal gyrus

amygdala connections
Amygdala Connections

Cerebral cortex

Olfactory system

Thalamus

Brainstem reticular formation

Hypothalamus

Stria

terminalis

AMYGDALA

Ventral Amygdalofugal

fibers

regions of the amygdala
Regions of the Amygdala
  • Large basolateral region:

Provides direct input to basal ganglia and motor system.

  • Small corticomedial group of nuclei:

Related to olfactory cortex.

  • Medial and central nuclei:

Connected to hypothalamus.

amygdala inputs
Amygdala Inputs

Olfactory

System

AMYGDALA

Corticomedial Nuclear

Group

Temporal Lobe

(associated with visual,

auditory, tactile senses)

Basolateral Nuclear

Group

Central Nucleus

Brainstem (viscerosensory relay

Nuclei: solitary nucleus

and parbrachial nucleus)

Ventral

Amygdalofugal

Fibers

amygdala outputs
Amygdala Outputs

Stria Terminalis

Septal Nuclei

Hypothalamus

AMYGDALA

Corticomedial Nuclear

Group

Dorsal Medial Thalamic Nucleus

Nucleus Accumbens

Hypothalamus

Basolateral Nuclear

Group

Central Nucleus

Ventral

Amygdalofugal

Fibers

Nuclei of

ANS

Ventral

Amygdalofugal

Fibers

functions of the amygdala
Functions of the Amygdala
  • Relate environmental stimuli to coordinated behavioral autonomic and endocrine responses seen in species-preservation.
  • Responses include:

Feeding and drinking

Agnostic (fighting) behavior

Mating and maternal care

Responses to physical or emotional stresses.

limbic system and basal nuclei
Limbic System and Basal Nuclei

Anterior Cingulate Gyrus

Orbitofrontal Areas (10, 11)

Medial and lateral temporal lobe

Hippocampus

Amygdala

Entorhinal cortex (24)

Ventral Striatum

(nucleus accumbens)

Caudate Nucleus

(head)

Ventral Anterior Nucleus

Dorsomedial Nucleus

Ventral Pallidum

Medial Globus Pallidus

Pars Reticularis

(Substantia nigra)

papez circuit emotions
Papez Circuit (Emotions)

Mammillothalamic

tract

Fornix

Mammillary bodies

Other hypothalamic nuclei

Septal nuclei

Substantia innominata

(Basal nucleus of Meynert)

Hippocampal Formation

(hippocampus

and dentate gyrus)

Anterior Thalamic

nuclear group

Neocortex

Parahippocampal Gyrus

Cortex of Cingulate Gyrus

pathologies lesions
Pathologies (lesions)
  • Voracious appetite
  • Increased (perverse) sexual activity
  • Docility:

Loss of normal fear/anger response

  • Memory loss:

Damage to hippocampus portion:

Cells undergoing calcium-induced changes associated with memory

kluver bucy syndrome
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome:
  • Results from bilateral destruction of amygdala.
  • Characteristics:

Increase in sexual activity.

Compulsive tendency to place objects in mouth.

Decreased emotionality.

Changes in eating behavior.

Visual agnosia.