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Lecture 2: Introduction to Physics 101. Chapter 1 : The Conversion of Units (1.3) Trigonometry (1.4) Scalars and Vectors (1.5). Length:. Distance Length (m) Radius of visible universe 1 x 10 26 To Andromeda Galaxy 2 x 10 22 To nearest star 4 x 10 16

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lecture 2 introduction to physics 101
Lecture 2: Introduction to Physics 101

Chapter 1 :

  • The Conversion of Units (1.3)
  • Trigonometry (1.4)
  • Scalars and Vectors (1.5)
length
Length:

DistanceLength (m)

Radius of visible universe 1 x 1026

To Andromeda Galaxy 2 x 1022

To nearest star 4 x 1016

Earth to Sun 1.5 x 1011

Radius of Earth 6.4 x 106

Sears Tower 4.5 x 102

Football field 1.0 x 102

Tall person 2 x 100

Thickness of paper 1 x 10-4

Wavelength of blue light 4 x 10-7

Diameter of hydrogen atom 1 x 10-10

Diameter of proton 1 x 10-15

slide3
Time:

IntervalTime (s)

Age of universe 5 x 1017

Age of Grand Canyon 3 x 1014

32 years 1 x 109

One year 3.2 x 107

One hour 3.6 x 103

Light travel from Earth to Moon 1.3 x 100

One cycle of guitar A string 2 x 10-3

One cycle of FM radio wave 6 x 10-8

Lifetime of neutral pi meson 1 x 10-16

Lifetime of top quark 4 x 10-25

slide4
Mass:

ObjectMass (kg)

Milky Way Galaxy 4 x 1041

Sun 2 x 1030

Earth 6 x 1024

Boeing 747 4 x 105

Car 1 x 103

Physics Student 7 x 101

Dust particle 1 x 10-9

Top quark 3 x 10-25

Proton 2 x 10-27

Electron 9 x 10-31

Neutrino 1 x 10-38

conversion of units
Conversion of Units
  • Example:

Distance Buffalo – Andromeda Nebula given in ly. What is the distance in km ?

1. Conversion factor: 1 ly=9.5 x 1012 km

2. Insert conversion factor:

d= 2 x 106 ly = 2 x 106 x 1 ly = 2 x 106 x 9.5 x 1012 km

= 1.9 x 1019 km

Remember: 10a x10b = 10a+b

10a/10b = 10a-b

example
Example:
  • Speed limit on german autobahn is 130 kmh. What is the speed limit in mph ?
lecture 2 act 1

correct

Lecture 2, ACT 1

A very good fastball pitcher can throw the ball 100 mph. What is the ball speed in m/s?

1 - 450 m/s

2 - 45 m/s

3 - 0.045 m/s

dimensional analysis
Dimensional Analysis
  • Dimension indicates the nature of a physical quantity or the type of unit.

Example:

Dimension of distance is length : [L]

Unit of distance is m , km, miles, …

Note:

Dimensions of left-hand side and right-hand side of an

equation have always to be the same, e.g. when you start with

a quantity of dimension length you have to finish with one

of dimension length.

Powerful check of your computation !

example9
Example:
  • x= ½ a tn. Find n ?
trigonometry
Trigonometry

Right angle:

Definition of sine, cosine and tangent:

Sin q = ho/h

Cos q = ha/h

Tan q = ho/ha

Pythagorean Theorem: h2 = ho2 + ha2

example11
Example:
  • A certain mountain road is inclined 3.1 degrees with respect to the horizon. What is the change in altitude (in meters) of the car as a result of its traveling 2.90 km along the road ?
lecture 2
Lecture 2:
  • Units
  • Dimensional Analysis
  • Trigonometry
  • Scalars and Vectors

I strongly suggest that you try the

example problems in the textbook.

If you have trouble with any of them, please

go to office hours for help!