John Adams and Political Dissent. A. XYZ Affair When Americans learned that French agents had demanded a bribe of American negotiators, anti-French sentiment swept the United States. Minster Y claimed “French party” in US B. Quasi-War with France
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Jefferson and Madison responded to the Alien and Sedition Acts by claiming that since a compact among the states created the Constitution, the states could judge the constitutionality of federal actions.
E. Convention of 1800
Negotiations between French and American diplomats ended the Quasi-War and freed the United States from its alliance with France.
Adams told to use war for political advantage; fires advisers; loses 1800
The Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1793 was a well-intentioned plan to “civilize” Native Americans, but the plan ignored the cultural traditions of the eastern Indian peoples.
B. Iroquois and Cherokees
The Cherokees adapted some of the teachings of Quaker missionaries to their own culture. Iroquois culture, due largely to the influence of Handsome Lake, adapted to European patterns to survive in the midst of changed circumstances.
Introduction: Thomas Jefferson’s inauguration heralded a change from the Federalist-controlled government that had preceded. The nation’s political system became better defined and its nationalistic and international positions grew clearer over the next fifteen years.
Before the War of 1812, Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and Prophet attempted to create an Indian federation. Prophet (Lalawethika) claimed to have returned from the dead, and he encouraged Indians to abandon white culture and return to their traditional ways.
Prophet and Tecumseh encouraged resistance. Tecumseh turned Prophet’s religious message into a political one and traveled widely in an attempt to unify northern and southern Indians to resist white occupation.
In the Battle of Tippecanoe, the supporters of Prophet and Tecumseh were dispersed. Their movement for Indian unity ended with Tecumseh’s death in 1813.
The U.S. economy relied heavily on shipping in the early years of the republic. The United States paid a heavy price when France and Britain blockaded each other’s trade in their commercial war.
B. Impressment of American Sailors
Britain resorted to stopping American ships to remove deserters, although many of them had become American citizens.
C. Neutral Rights
Britain blocked goods the U.S. believed were part of neutral trade. Congress passed the Non-Importation Act in 1806, which barred British manufactured goods from entering American ports.
D. Chesapeake Affair
In 1807, the crew of the H.M.S. Leopard attacked and boarded the U.S.S. Chesapeake in American waters. The incident led many Americans to demand war, but Jefferson responded instead with “peaceable coercion.”
The Embargo of 1807 forbade virtually all exports from the United States and became extremely unpopular as the American economy collapsed.
F. Domestic Manufacturing
Domestic manufacturing was made profitable by the embargo, and merchants began to shift capital from shipping to manufacturing.
G. Election of 1808
Jefferson, emulating Washington, declined a third term. This led to the contested nomination of Democratic-Republican James Madison, who later won the election.
H. Non-Intercourse Act
The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 resumed trade with all countries except Britain and France. In 1810, Congress substituted Macon’s Bill Number 2, which Napoleon used to trick the United States into declaring non-intercourse with Great Britain (claimed he would respect US neutrality).
Arrested by French Revolution, held in jail for year (goes insane?)
Age of Reason: “All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian, or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.”
Probably the thinking of most educated, but not a belief that should be shared with the masses
Banned as blasphemous; Philadelphia printer 100,000 copies (London: sold in vending machines to avoid prison/fine for selling)