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Industrialization spreads 1815-1914 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE WORLD PER CAPITA LEVELS, 1750-1913 N.B. All entries are based on an index of 100, equal to the per capita level of industrialization in Great Britain in 1900.

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industrialization and the world per capita levels 1750 1913
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE WORLDPER CAPITA LEVELS, 1750-1913
  • N.B. All entries are based on an index of 100, equal to the per capita level of industrialization in Great Britain in 1900.
  • Adapted from P. Bairoch, “International Industrialization Levels from 1750-1890,” Journal of European Economic History 11 (Fall 1982), p. 294.  Data for Britain is actually for the United Kingdom, including Ireland with England, Wales and Scotland.
industrialization contd
INDUSTRIALIZATION (contd.)

POINTS ABOUT CHART:

  • All equal in 1750, with Britain edging SLIGHTLY ahead
  • By 1800 Britain had opened up a lead, on which it built over century
  • Variations in timing of industrialization across countries, from Belgium to Russia
  • By 1900 USA and Germany closing on Britain
  • USA surpassed Britain by 1913
  • All European countries, even Russia, did very well relative to the Rest
industrialization contd4
INDUSTRIALIZATION (contd.)

Disadvantages in Europe:

  • Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
  • Less capital available
  • Hard to compete with GB goods
  • Hard (at first) to import technology
  • Increasingly expensive to start up
  • Workers lacked skills  
industrialization contd5
INDUSTRIALIZATION (contd.)

Advantages in Europe:

  • Putting-out system
  • Could borrow latest technology from GB
  • Strong independent governments
  • States willing to play a greater role in industrialization:
      • Belgium
      • France
      • Prussia
      • Russia
  • Limited liability corporations