Inter-relationship of Fundamental Values The quest for the Good Society Rights Liberty Equality Leadership Efficiency Community Democracy Plant closings Layoffs Minority hiring policies Inner city investment Paternity leave Executive bonus systems Environmentalism…
The quest for the Good Society
“The great conversation across the centuries.”
“Conflict between civilizations will be the latest phase in the evolution of conflict in the modern world. …the conflicts of the Western world were largely among princes—emperors, absolute monarchs, and constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies, their armies, their mercantilist economic strength and most important, the territory they ruled.” …
“In the politics of civilizations, the peoples and governments of non-Western civilizations no longer remain the objects of history as targets of Western colonialism but join the West as movers and shapers of history.”Samuel P. Huntington(1993)
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
For that some should rule and others be ruled is a thing not only necessary, but expedient; from the hour of their birth, some are marked out for subjection, others for rule. …
…Again the male is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules, and the other is ruled; this principle, of necessity, extends to all mankind. …
…It is clear, then, that some men are by nature free, and others slaves, and that for these latter slavery is both expedient and right.
“True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting…
…And there will not be different laws at Rome or Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and all times, and there will be one master and ruler, that is, God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge. Whoever is disobedient is fleeing from himself and denying his human nature, and by reason of this very fact he will suffer the worst penalties, even if he escapes wha tis commonly considered punishment.” from The Republic III, XXII
“To this war of every man against every man … nothing can be unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice, have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law…
…The passions that incline men to peace are: fear of death; desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living; and a hope by their industry to obtain them.”
“The right of nature, which writers commonly call jus naturale, is the liberty each man hath to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life…
By liberty is understood…the absence of external impediments…
A law of nature, lex naturalis, is a precept, or general rule, found out by reason, by which man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life…
…right consists in liberty to do, or to forebear; whereas law determinith and bindith to one of them: so that law and right differ
as much as obligation and liberty…
“I authorize and give up my right to governing myself to this man, or to this assembly of man, on this condition; that thou give up thy right to him, and authorize all his actions in like manner. This done, the multitude so united in one person is called a Commonwealth; in Latin, Civitas.”
“…one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants one with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all as he shall think expedient for their peace and common defence.
And he that carryeth this position is called sovereign, and said to have sovereign power; and every one besides, his subject.”
Freedom is independence of the compulsory will of another.
conversations over timeAntigoneconflict between individual conscience & laws of the state5th C: tradedy @ ruler made bad decision; couldn’t admit mistake
Hobbes: really free in state of nature& voluntarily enters social contract to live under rule of law-liberty for guaranteed security under all-powerful monarch- a bitter bargain
Lockefree in [benign] state of nature“consent of the governed”civil peace, not by a despotic Hobbesian sovereignRather, laws freely agreed to by those laws’ subjectsWhere law ends, tyranny beings[Jefferson &Declaration of Independence]
RousseauHow can people retain their Natural Right to freedom if they have contracted to live under the laws of the state?No idiot would voluntarily sell himself into slavery.When obey a law that’s in your own self-interest, haven’t given up fdm., & everyone has done so too.
we can obey ourselves
“Although, in this state, he deprives himself of some advantages which he got from nature, he gains in return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted …. Instead of a stupid and unimaginative animal, made him an intelligent being and a man.”
“Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and no one but they has the right to dispose of it.”
rights of minorities
“The only freedom which deserves the name is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it.”
Declaration of Sentiments
…there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation…no knowledge on the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters…
“The only realist alternative to anarchy on the one hand, and to tyranny on the other, is benevolent despotism.”
RELATIVELY FEW PHILS-faith in Demo.
The Limits of Growth (1972)
“Grow or die,” goes the old economic maxim. But in 1972 a team of systems scientists and computer modelers challenged conventional wisdom with a ground-breaking study that warned that there were limits—especially environmental limits—to how ‘big’ human civilization and its appetite for resources could get. Beyond a certain point, they said, in effect, the maxim could very well be
‘grow and die ’.”