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INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH 1920s and 1930s: Gandhi’s leadership of civil disobedience movements; khadi and satyagra PowerPoint Presentation
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THE UNITED NATIONSFounded in 1945 to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective security. Has 191 member countries, represented in the General Assembly. The Security Council has 5 permanent members, 10 elected members. The UN headquarters are in New York City.SOME IMPORTANT U.N. ORGANIZATIONS FAO: Food and Agriculture OrganizationILO: International Labor OrganizationUNICEF: United Nations Children’s FundUNDP: United Nations Development ProgramUNEP: United Nations Environment ProgramWHO: World Health Organization

INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYAlso a UN organization, founded in 1957 in response to fears and expectations of nuclear energy. The Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968. Headquarters: Geneva

WORLD BANK & IMFFounded at Bretton Woods, NH, in 1944, to prevent another Depression, promote international trade and facilitate economic stability through loans and technical cooperation. Each has 184 member countries. Headquarters: Washington, DC.

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INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH

1920s and 1930s: Gandhi’s leadership of civil disobedience movements; khadi and satyagraha.

1942: Quit India movement. Britain offers dominion status.

1947: India and Pakistan established.

Partition: Hyderabad, Kashmir problems.

1948: Assassination of Gandhi

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1948 Election: HNP’s Apartheid platform

Only total separation of races would prevent a move toward equality, and eventual control of white society by black people (who were 80% of the population).

Africans should be treated as temporary dwellers in the cities and should be forced periodically to return to the countryside to work for farmers (primarily Afrikaners).

Africans should develop political bodies in the African reserves, and should have no form of parliamentary representation in South Africa.

Ban on mixed marriages, black trade unions

HNP became the government and, renamed the National Party (NP), ruled South Africa until 1994.

excerpt from haile selassie s speech to the un new york city october 4 1963
On the question of racial discrimination, the Addis Ababa Conference taught, to those who will learn, this further lesson: That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained; And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed; Until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and good-will; Until all Africans stand and speak as free beings, equal in the eyes of all men, as they are in the eyes of Heaven; Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.

The United Nations has done much, both directly and indirectly to speed the disappearance of discrimination and oppression from the earth. Without the opportunity to focus world opinion on Africa and Asia which this Organization provides, the goal, for many, might still lie ahead, and the struggle would have taken far longer. For this, we are truly grateful. But more can be done. The basis of racial discrimination and colonialism has been economic, and it is with economic weapons that these evils have been and can be overcome. In pursuance of resolutions adopted at the Addis Ababa Summit Conference, African States have undertaken certain measures in the economic field, which, if adopted by all member states of the United Nations, would soon reduce intransigence to reason. I ask, today, for adherence to these measures by every nation represented here that is truly devoted to the principles enunciated in the Charter. I do not believe that Portugal and South Africa are prepared to commit economic or physical suicide if honorable and reasonable alternatives exist. I believe that such alternatives can be found.

Excerpted from Important Utterances Of H.I.M., Imperial Ethiopian Ministry Of Information, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Excerpt from Haile Selassie’s speech to theUNNew York City, October 4, 1963
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Mohammed Mossadegh

Reza and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

1920s:Reza Pahlavi Roads, railways, industry, education.

1935:Persia’s name changed to Iran

WW2:Britain, USSR occupy Iran

1941:Mohammed Reza Pahlavi becomes Shah

1950s: Mossadegh is popular prime minister; works with parliament to nationalize oil industry.

1979:Shah flees amid turmoil. Conservatives led by Khomeini

1980-88:Iran-Iraq war

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ISRAEL-PALESTINE CONFLICT

1890s - early 1900s: Jewish migrations

1916: Sykes-Picot agreement

1917: Balfour Declaration

1930s: British backpedal on promise to Jews

1940s: Holocaust

1947: UN partition plan, rejected by Arabs, supported by US

1948: Israel formed, attacked by Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq. 600,000 Palestinians and 600,000 Jews became refugees.

1956: Suez Conflict

1964: Formation of PLO

1967: Six-day war – pre-emptive strikes; Israel triples its size

1972: Palestinian attack at Olympics

UN Partition Plan