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THE UNITED NATIONSFounded in 1945 to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective security. Has 191 member countries, represented in the General Assembly. The Security Council has 5 permanent members, 10 elected members. The UN headquarters are in New York City.SOME IMPORTANT U.N. ORGANIZATIONS FAO: Food and Agriculture OrganizationILO: International Labor OrganizationUNICEF: United Nations Children’s FundUNDP: United Nations Development ProgramUNEP: United Nations Environment ProgramWHO: World Health Organization
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCYAlso a UN organization, founded in 1957 in response to fears and expectations of nuclear energy. The Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed in 1968. Headquarters: Geneva
WORLD BANK & IMFFounded at Bretton Woods, NH, in 1944, to prevent another Depression, promote international trade and facilitate economic stability through loans and technical cooperation. Each has 184 member countries. Headquarters: Washington, DC.
1920s and 1930s: Gandhi’s leadership of civil disobedience movements; khadi and satyagraha.
1942: Quit India movement. Britain offers dominion status.
1947: India and Pakistan established.
Partition: Hyderabad, Kashmir problems.
1948: Assassination of Gandhi
Only total separation of races would prevent a move toward equality, and eventual control of white society by black people (who were 80% of the population).
Africans should be treated as temporary dwellers in the cities and should be forced periodically to return to the countryside to work for farmers (primarily Afrikaners).
Africans should develop political bodies in the African reserves, and should have no form of parliamentary representation in South Africa.
Ban on mixed marriages, black trade unions
HNP became the government and, renamed the National Party (NP), ruled South Africa until 1994.
The United Nations has done much, both directly and indirectly to speed the disappearance of discrimination and oppression from the earth. Without the opportunity to focus world opinion on Africa and Asia which this Organization provides, the goal, for many, might still lie ahead, and the struggle would have taken far longer. For this, we are truly grateful. But more can be done. The basis of racial discrimination and colonialism has been economic, and it is with economic weapons that these evils have been and can be overcome. In pursuance of resolutions adopted at the Addis Ababa Summit Conference, African States have undertaken certain measures in the economic field, which, if adopted by all member states of the United Nations, would soon reduce intransigence to reason. I ask, today, for adherence to these measures by every nation represented here that is truly devoted to the principles enunciated in the Charter. I do not believe that Portugal and South Africa are prepared to commit economic or physical suicide if honorable and reasonable alternatives exist. I believe that such alternatives can be found.
Excerpted from Important Utterances Of H.I.M., Imperial Ethiopian Ministry Of Information, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Excerpt from Haile Selassie’s speech to theUNNew York City, October 4, 1963
Reza and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
1920s:Reza Pahlavi Roads, railways, industry, education.
1935:Persia’s name changed to Iran
WW2:Britain, USSR occupy Iran
1941:Mohammed Reza Pahlavi becomes Shah
1950s: Mossadegh is popular prime minister; works with parliament to nationalize oil industry.
1979:Shah flees amid turmoil. Conservatives led by Khomeini
1890s - early 1900s: Jewish migrations
1916: Sykes-Picot agreement
1917: Balfour Declaration
1930s: British backpedal on promise to Jews
1947: UN partition plan, rejected by Arabs, supported by US
1948: Israel formed, attacked by Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq. 600,000 Palestinians and 600,000 Jews became refugees.
1956: Suez Conflict
1964: Formation of PLO
1967: Six-day war – pre-emptive strikes; Israel triples its size
1972: Palestinian attack at Olympics
UN Partition Plan