fossil fuels ch 13 montgomery l.
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Fossil Fuels Ch 13 Montgomery 1. Which of the following contributes directly to the saltiness of the ocean? A. Bed load of rivers B. Dissolved load of rivers C. suspended load of rivers D. none of the above Piedmont rain Miss. R. ocean Ca 2+ 16 0.7 42 400

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slide2

1. Which of the following contributes directly to the saltiness of the ocean?

A. Bed load of rivers

B. Dissolved load of rivers

C. suspended load of rivers

D. none of the above

slide3

Piedmont rain Miss. R. ocean

Ca 2+ 16 0.7 42 400

Mg 2+ 3.4 0.1 12 1350

Na+ 26 0.6 25 10500

K+ 2.1 0.1 2.9 380

Cl- 38 0.6 30 19000

SO42- 13 2.2 56 2700

HCO3- 54 0.1 132 142

NO3- 0.6 2.4 0.5

Data from Montgomery & Railsback

slide4

Both rivers have

Dissolved loads

In the form of

ions

2. Which is the greatest reservoir of freshwater?

A. lakes

b. streams

c. ice

d. groundwater

slide5

2. Which is the greatest reservoir of freshwater?

A. lakes

b. streams

c. ice

d. groundwater

hydrologic cycle note importance of groundwater and ice reservoirs and of course the ocean
Hydrologic cycle…note importance of groundwater and icereservoirs…and of course the ocean
slide7

7. When sea water evaporates, the 18O/16O ratio of the water vapor is

A. higher than that of the seawater

B. the same as that of the seawater

C. lower that that of the seawater

D. Depends on salinity of seawater

slide8

9. Evidence from _______________ can be used to infer the composition of the atmosphere in the past

A. oxygen isotope ratio of ice in the Greenland ice cap

B. air bubbles trapped in the Greenland ice cap

C. oxgen isotope ratio shells in deep sea sediments

D. all of the above

Snow and rain are lighter, have less 18O than the water they form from

slide9

Ice cores give annual records

(light layers = summer, dust

Rich layers)…air bubbles

Trapped in ice gives

Atmospheric composition

slide11
12. Since the onset of the Industrial Age, CO2 in the atmosphere has
  • A. increased to about 100 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration
  • B. increased to about 10 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration
  • C. increased to about 1.3 times its pre-Industrial Age concentration
  • D. we think it has increased but we don’t know by how much
slide12

Thus,

Higher CO2 = higher air

temperatures

  • -
slide13

18. The Mississippi River hypoxic zone refers to

A. an area of low oxygen in bottom water in the river

B. an area of low oxygen in bottom water in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to

the Mississippi River delta

C. an area of low oxygen throughout the water column in the

Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River delta

D. all of the above

slide15

19. The Mississippi River hypoxic zone is caused by

A. industrial chemicals associated with the port of New Orleans

B. seepage of oxygen-free gases such as methane from the ocean floor

and/or riverbed

C. fertilizer application to fields in the drainage basin of the Mississippi River

D. all of the above

slide16

N and P input correlate with

Agricultural intensity

slide17

Algae blooms and blooms of other aquatic vegetation can be stimulated by

  • introduction of nutrients in lakes and streams…these blooms cause
  • oxygen depletion in the lakes because
  • A. the algae use up the available oxygen
  • B. when they die, the decay process uses up oxygen
  • C. the bloom covers the water’s surface and doesn’t
  • allow oxygen to enter the water from the atmosphere
  • D. none of the above
slide18

What happens when ;you add

Nutrients….things grow

slide19

Hypoxia =

Deficiency

Of oxygen

Reaching

Living tissues

slide20

A tragedy such as the Woburn MA childhood leukemia

  • outbreak is less likely to happen now because
  • A. The Safe Drinking Water Act requires municpalities to monitor the quality
  • and contaminants in municipal drinking water
  • B. The Clean Water Act monitors and restricts pollultion of groundwater
  • C. The Clean Water Act monitors and restricts pollution of surface, navigable waters
  • D. all of the above
slide21

Contaminants

Move as

Part of

A “plume”

slide22

23. Which of the following is the least robust indicator of climate warming

A. the rise of sea level

B. the retreat of alpine glaciers

C. the unusually high number record high temperatures in Georgia last summer

D. All of these indicators are equally robust

slide23

Today: air temperature

Appears to be rising

10 hottest years on record

Are red

slide24

26. If you evaporate a liter of seawater which mineral does not form by evaporation?

A. halite, NaCl

B. gypsum, CaSO4

C. calcite, CaCO3

D. All of the above form by evaporation

salinity if you evaporate seawater you get calcite then gypsum caso 4 then salt then sylvite kcl
Salinity…if you evaporate seawater you get calcite then gypsum (CaSO4), then salt, then sylvite, KCl
slide26

30. An example of a feedback mechanism in climate behavior includes:

A. increased heating of the soils on top of Kilamanjaro due to the recession of the ice cap

B. increased heating of the Arctic Ocean due to melting of sea ice

C. increased cloud cover due to increased evaporation of the oceans

D. all of the above

slide27

Northern ice cap…to the right

Snow cover 1979 versus 2003