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Walter S. Gilliam, PhD October 27, 2010 The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy Child Study Center Yale University School of Medicine. Evaluating Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation Evaluation and Expansion in Connecticut. The Rationale for ECMHC in CT.

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evaluating early childhood mental health consultation evaluation and expansion in connecticut

Walter S. Gilliam, PhD

October 27, 2010

The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy

Child Study Center

Yale University School of Medicine

Evaluating Early ChildhoodMental Health Consultation Evaluation and Expansion in Connecticut
the rationale for ecmhc in ct
The Rationale for ECMHC in CT

Expulsion Rates (per 1,000)

(1 in 36)

(1 in 149)

(1 in 476)

Gilliam, WS & Shahar, G (2006). Preschool and child care expulsion and suspension: Rates and predictors in one state. Infants and Young Children, 19, 228-245.

Gilliam, WS (2005). Prekindergarteners left behind: Expulsion Rates in state prekindergarten programs. FCD Policy Brief, Series No. 3. Available: www.fcd-us.org/resources/resources_show.htm?doc_id=464280

state prek expulsion rates
State PreK Expulsion Rates

Connecticut

16% of Classrooms

12 Expulsions per 1,000 Enrolled

(1 in Every 81 Preschoolers)

7th Highest State in the Nation

access to support associated with decreased expulsion rates
Access to Support Associated with Decreased Expulsion Rates

Gilliam, WS (2005). Prekindergarteners left behind: Expulsion Rates in state prekindergarten programs. FCD Policy Brief, Series No. 3.

early childhood consultation partnership
Early Childhood Consultation Partnership
  • Created in 2002 – Funded by DCF & SDE
  • Availability: All CT child care & ece programs serving 0- to 5-year olds
  • Referral-source: child care directors (teachers & parents)
  • Services: Child/classroom-focused consultation, Teacher training, Home-based component
  • Consultants: 10-20 MA-level throughout state
  • Dosage: Brief (3 months), intense (6-8 hrs/wk)
  • Supervision: Group, Individual, Agency-based
evaluated in 3 statewide rcts
Evaluated in 3 Statewide RCTs
  • Study #1 (2005-2007)
    • Preschool (3-4 yo) programs in CT
  • Study #2 (2008-2010, finishing)
    • Preschool (3-4 yo) programs in CT
  • Study #3 (2008-2010, finishing)
    • Infant/Toddler (0-2 yo) programs in CT
  • Inclusion: Requesting ECCP; Consenting
  • Exclusion: Prior ECCP treatment
study 1 evaluation measures
Study 1 Evaluation Measures
  • Classroom Quality & Interactions
    • Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R)
    • Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS)
  • Teacher Beliefs and Feelings
    • Parental Modernity Scale
    • Child Care Worker Job Stress Inventory
    • Teacher Depression (CES-D)
  • Child Behavior Problems
    • Conners Teacher Rating Scale – Long Form (CTRS-LF)
    • Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)
study 1 results target children
Study 1 Results (Target Children)

(F = 10.68**; d = 0.57)

(F = 10.62**; d = 0.51)

(F = 4.05*; d = 0.34)

(F = 4.33*; d = 0.39)

study 1 results summary
Study 1 Results (Summary)
  • Positive Effects on
    • Teacher-rated Externalizing Behaviors
  • No Effects on
    • Non-Externalizing Child Behaviors
      • Internalizing Behavior Problems
      • Prosocial Behaviors
    • Classroom Environment
      • ECERS-R (all domains)
      • Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale (all domains)
    • Teacher Beliefs and Feelings
      • Authoritarian Beliefs
      • Job Stress, Control, and Satisfaction
      • Depression
studies 2 3 measures
Studies 2 & 3 Measures
  • Classroom Quality & Interactions
    • Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS)
    • Preschool Mental Health Climate Scale (PMHCS)
  • Target Children [+Random Peers]
    • Conners Teacher Rating Scale – Long Form (CTRS-LF) or Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (ITSEA)
    • Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) [+Random Peers] or Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)
    • Preschool Social Behavior Scale (PSBS)
    • Preschool Expulsion Risk Measure (PERM) [+Random Peers]
    • Time Sampling (Structured Activities & Free Play)
      • (Relational Aggression, Oppositionality, Disruptive Behavior)
    • Home-School Collaboration
      • Family Involvement Questionnaire
      • Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences
studies 2 3 measures more details
Studies 2 & 3 Measures (more details)
  • Time Sampling
    • Each -- 30 segments (10 sec on, 10 sec off)
    • Relational Aggression (Free Play)
      • Any verbal or nonverbal behavior that (a) excluded others from play or encouraged others to exclude a child or (b) threatened to exclude or ignore.
    • Oppositionality (Structured Activity)
      • Includes defiance or refusal to follow adult directions, arguing with adults, and temper outbursts in response to adult directives.
    • Disruptive Behavior (Structured Activity)
      • Includes behaviors that are not necessarily in response to adult directions, but are either impulsive, show difficulty sustaining attention or waiting turn, disturbs other children, or displays an emotional or behavioral outburst.
  • Condition-Blinded Objective Raters
studies 2 3 measures more details14
Studies 2 & 3 Measures (more details)
  • Home-School Collaboration
    • 11 items, 4-point Likert Scale (rarely-always)
    • Alpha = .81
    • Example items:
      • “The parent talks to the teacher about how the child gets along with his/her classmates at school.”
      • “The parent talks to the child’s teacher about the child’s accomplishments.”
      • “The parent talks with the child’s teacher about personal or family matters.”
    • (Family Involvement Questionnaire; Fantuzzo, Tighe, & Childs, 2000)
effect sizes for studies 1 3 preliminary
Effect Sizes for Studies 1-3PRELIMINARY

Effect Sizes: Trivial, Small, Medium, Large

Effect estimates for Studies 2 and 3 are preliminary and based on incomplete data.

conclusions so far
Conclusions (so far)
  • Positive or Likely Positive Effects
    • Teacher-rated externalizing behaviors in targets (P & I/T)
    • Observed oppositionality & disruptive behaviors (I/T)
    • Home-School Collaboration (P & I/T)
  • Null or Likely Null Effects
    • Teacher depression and job stress (Study 1 only)
    • ECERS-R, CLASS (P & I/T)
  • Too Close to Call at This Time
    • Teacher-rated externalizing behaviors in random peers (P & I/T)
  • Not Yet Examined
    • Preschool Mental Health Climate Scale (PMHCS)
    • Preschool Expulsion Risk Measure (PERM)
    • All parent-rated forms
the eccp evaluations in sum
The ECCP Evaluations in Sum
  • What we have going for us
    • ECCP is brief and well-defined
    • ECCP is popular (built-in waitlist controls)
    • ECCP is stable and well-supported
    • ECCP is a willing evaluation participant
    • State support &funding for evaluation
  • What we have as challenges
    • Fluid programs (especially infant/toddler)
    • Need more/better measures (fidelity)
    • Evaluation funds still shoestring (for RCTs)
slide18

Walter S. Gilliam, PhD

The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy

Child Study Center

Yale University School of Medicine

230 South Frontage Road

PO Box 207900

New Haven, CT 06520-7900

Phone: 203-785-3384

Email: walter.gilliam@yale.edu

For reports, please visit: www.ziglercenter.yale.edu