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Spatial. Disorientation. OUTLINE. Review of Spatial Disorientation Terms Discuss the Role of Vision in Maintaining Equilibrium Components of the Vestibular System Types of Vestibular Illusions Mechanisms of Proprioceptive Equilibrium

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Spatial

Disorientation

outline

OUTLINE

  • Review of Spatial Disorientation Terms
  • Discuss the Role of Vision in Maintaining Equilibrium
  • Components of the Vestibular System
  • Types of Vestibular Illusions
  • Mechanisms of Proprioceptive Equilibrium
  • Identify the Classifications of Vestibular Illusions
  • Prevention and Treatment of Spatial Disorietation
references

REFERENCES

  • FM 1-301, Aeromedical Training for Flight Personnel
terminology
Vertigo

Sensory Illusion

Spatial Disorientation

TERMINOLOGY
senses of balance
Visual System

Vestibular System

Proprioceptive System

SENSES OF BALANCE
focal vision
Also called Central Vision

Done consciously

Enables one to determine distance

Allows for depth perception

Presents us with clear view

FOCAL VISION

USASAM SD NEWS

ambient vision
Also called Peripheral Vision

Done unconsciously

Detects motion and attitude cues

Helps to provide balance

AMBIENT VISION
visual system
Vision is the most reliable sense used during flight

80% of orientation while flying is dependent on the visual senses

VISUAL SYSTEM
vestibular system

VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

Semicircular Canals

Otolith Organs

slide11

Semicircular Canals

Otolith Organs

Auditory

Nerve

Cochlea

Ossicles

Ear Drum

Middle Ear

External Ear

Eustachian Tube

Opening to Throat

functions of the vestibular system
Triggers reflexes that stabilize the eyes during movement of the head or body

Assist automatic reflexes

Provides orientation information in the absence of vision

FUNCTIONS OF THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
visual tracking

VISUAL TRACKING

Maintains focus of the retinal image

slide14

NYSTAGMUS

A rapid flickering motion of both

eyes back and forth, seriously

degrading visual acuity to 20/200

for a few seconds.

functions of the semicircular canals
Indicates Roll, Pitch, and Yaw

Change in both speed and direction

Responsive to angular acceleration and deceleration

FUNCTIONS OF THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
function of the otolith organs
The Otolith organs are stimulated by gravity and linear accelerations

Change in speed without a change in direction

Sensitive to linear acceleration and deceleration (forward and backward/up and down)

FUNCTION OF THE OTOLITH ORGANS
slide20

UPRIGHT TILT FORWARD TILT BACKWARD

TRUE SENSATION TRUE SENSATION TRUE SENSATION

FUNCTION OF THE OTOLITH ORGANS

FORWARD ACCELERATION CENTRIFUGAL /CENTIPUAL

FALSE SENSATION OF BACKWARD FALSE SENSATION OF UPRIGHT

vestibular illusions
Somatogyral

The Leans

Graveyard Spin

Coriolis

Somatogravic

Oculoagravic

Elevator

Oculogravic

VESTIBULAR ILLUSIONS
slide22

THE LEANS

Most common form of Spatial Disorientation

slide24

Pilot corrects attitude and compensates for the false sensation of turning in the opposite direction

slide29

THECORIOLISILLUSION

  • The most deadly illusion
  • Most likely to occur during an
  • instrument approach
coriolis illusion
Pilot enters a turn stimulating one semicircular canal

Pilot makes a head movement in a different geometrical plane

Stimulating a 2nd / 3rd semicircular canal

Results in overwhelming sensation of Yaw, Pitch, or Roll

CORIOLIS ILLUSION
oculoagravic
Upward movement of the eyes during

weightlessness, caused by rapid

downward motion of the aircraft

OCULOAGRAVIC
elevator illusion
Occurs during sudden upward acceleration

Pilot perceives a nose up attitude

Tendency to “nose over” aircraft

ELEVATOR ILLUSION
slide34

UPRIGHT

AFT TILT

UPRIGHT

EXTREME

AFT TILT

OCULOGRAVIC ILLUSION

NOSE HIGH SENSATION

seat of pants flying
Very unreliable means of orientation

Dependent upon gravity

Flying without reference to instruments

SEAT OF PANTS FLYING
classification of disorientation
TYPE I - UNRECOGNIZED

TYPE II - RECOGNIZED

TYPE III - INCAPACITATING

CLASSIFICATION OFDISORIENTATION
unrecognized type i
Pilot does notconsciously perceive any indication of Spatial Disorientation

False inputs from sensory organs or cues

Crashes with smile on their face

UNRECOGNIZEDType I
recognized type ii
Pilot consciously perceives a problem, but may not know it is due to spatial disorientation

Pilot can correct the situation

RECOGNIZEDType II
incapacitating type iii
Pilot experiences overwhelming sensations

Conflict of sensory inputs

Unable to properly orient themselves by use of instruments or visual cues

INCAPACITATINGType III
spatial disorientation

SPATIAL DISORIENTATION

Prevention techniques

sd prevention
Instruments-trust your instruments

Good cockpit design

Training

Instrument proficiency

Health

Aircraft design

Never try to fly both VMC and IMC at the same time

SD PREVENTION
prevention cont
Never fly without visual reference points

Trust the instruments

Never stare at lights

Dark adaptation

Avoid self -imposed stresses (DEATH)

PREVENTION (cont.)
treatment
Refer to instruments

Develop and maintain cross-checks

Delay intuitive reactions

Transfer controls

TREATMENT