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Cosmological Magnetic Fields Angela V. Olinto University of Chicago Cosmological Fields? Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination? Cosmological Fields? Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination? If yes: how were primordial Magnetic fields created?

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cosmological magnetic fields

Cosmological Magnetic Fields

Angela V. Olinto

University of Chicago

cosmological fields
Cosmological Fields?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
cosmological fields3
Cosmological Fields?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
  • If yes:
  • how were primordial Magnetic fields created?
  • What role have they played since?
cosmological fields4
Cosmological Fields?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
  • If yes:
  • how were primordial Magnetic fields created? PHASE TRANSITIONS
  • What role have they played since?
  • Star Formation
  • Seed Dynamos
  • Structure Formation…
cosmological fields5
Cosmological Fields?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
  • How would we know?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before galaxies formed?
  • Lyman- forest - intermediate scales
  • Are there large scale Magnetic Fields today?
extra galactic magnetic fields

Extra Galactic Magnetic Fields

Constraints from Faraday Rotation to distant Quasars in an Inhomogeneous Universe (Burles, Blasi, A.O. ‘98)

variance increases - non-gaussian tail

Median| from z = 0 to 2.5, bh2 = 0.02

BHubble 10-9 G (Ly- forest)

BHubble 2 10-8 G (homogeneous)

B50Mpc 6 10-9 G (Ly- forest)

B50Mpc 10-7 G (homogeneous)

BJ 10-8 G (Ly- forest)

BJ  10-6 G (homogeneous)

cosmological fields7
Cosmological Fields?
  • Where there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
  • How would we know?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before galaxies formed?
  • Lyman- forest - intermediate scales
  • Are there large scale Magnetic Fields today?
cosmological fields8
Cosmological Fields?
  • Were there Magnetic Fields before recombination?
  • How would we know?
  • Are there large scale Magnetic Fields today?
  • Yes - in clusters of galaxies (M ~ 1015 Msolar )
  • B can reach 10-6 Gauss (Kronberg et al)
  • equi-partition with gas dynamics
  • What about in emptier regions?
ehe cosmic rays should point
EHE Cosmic Rays should point!

1kpc

Rgyro = 0.11 Mpc E20/ZBG

p

B

B<10 nG

R>11 Mpc

after S. Swordy

ehe cosmic rays should point10

Magnetic Fields less effective at EHEs (~ 1020 eV):

Simulations CDM LSS + MFs BExtraGal ~ <10 nG D. Grasso (ICRC03)

AGASA clustersconstraints Bgal

G. Medina-Tanco (ICRC03)

EHE Cosmic Rays should point!

Isola, Lemoine, Sigl ‘02

slide11

AGASAAkeno Giant Air Shower Array

Presented 3 oral + 2 posters:

11 Super-GZK events

Small Scale Clustering

Constraints on Composition

- protons at UHEs.

111 scintillators + 27 muon det.

agasa
AGASA

Composition: K. Shinozaki et al. ICRC03

  • Muon density E0 ≥1019eV q≤36º
  • Fe frac. (@90% CL):< 35% (1019–1019.5eV), < 76% (E>1019.5eV)
  • Akeno 1km2 : Hayashida et al. ’95
  • Haverah Park: Ave et al. ’03
  • Volcano Ranch: Dova et al. ICRC03
  • HiRes: Archbold et al. ICRC03

AGASA

Gamma-ray fraction upper limits (@90%CL)

34% (>1019eV)(g/p<0.45)

56% (>1019.5eV)(g/p<1.27)

agasa13
AGASA

Small Scale ClusteringM. Teshima et al. ICRC03

  • 1 triplet + 6 doublets (2 triplets + 6 doublets with looser cut)
  • Clustering for E ~1019eV and ~5x1019eV,
  • Ratio of Cluster/All increases with E up to 5x1019eV
  • Above GZK energy (5x1019eV) statistics too small
  • No significant time self-correlation
slide14

Angular Correlations

Log E>19.0

Log E>19.2

Log E>19.4

Log E>19.6

2d correlation map in l ii b ii
2D-Correlation Map in (ΔlII ,ΔbII )

Log E >19.0eV, 3. 4σ

Log E >19.2eV, 3. 0σ

Polarization

studies will

limit B gal

and B Xgal

ΔbII

ΔlII

Log E >19.4eV, 2.0σ

Log E >19.6eV, 4.4σ

agasa18
AGASA

11 events with E > 1020 eV M. Takeda et al. ICRC03

AGASA systematic errors ~ 18%

Flux * E3

the high resolution fly s eye hires
The High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes)

Pioneers of Fluorescence Technique (8 oral + 4 posters)

No Super-GZK flux

No Small Scale Clustering

Composition Change

  • Air fluorescence detectors
  • HiRes 1 - 21 mirrors
  • HiRes 2 - 42 mirrors
  • Dugway (Utah)
  • start ‘97HR1 ‘99HR2

HiRes 1

HiRes 2

slide20

Systematic off-set

Thanks to D. Bergman

systematic errors in by hand

30% in order to reconcile low energy data (1018.5-1019.5 eV)

  • 15% within limits allowed by both collaborations
systematic errorsin by hand…

HiRes +15%

AGASA -15%

DDM, Blasi, Olinto 2003

DDM, Blasi, Olinto 2003

best fit slope: 2.6

number of events above 1020eV:

no GZK @ 1.5 sigma

number of events above 1020eV:

GZK cutoff

DeMarco et al (ICRC03)

hires
HiRes

Composition: J. Mathews et al. ICRC03

  • HiRes Stereo: unchanging, light composition above 1018 eV
  • Stereo HiRes and HiRes Prototype-MIA consistent in overlap region
  • HiRes Prototype-MIA Hybrid
  • changing composition
  • (Heavy to Light)
  • between 1017 and 1018 eV
  • No significant information
  • near GZK region yet
  • Come back to 29th ICRC
slide23

GZK cut-off is model and B dependent…

Magnetized Local

Super-Cluster -

better fit to spectrum

(Blasi, A.O. ‘99)

E. Parizot et al. ICRC03

are the sources astrophysical or new physics
Are the sources Astrophysical or New Physics?

Pulsar,

AGN

BL Lacs -

some correlation

Cosmic Strings

Super Heavy

Dark Matter Relics

in the Dark Halo

of our Galaxy

anisostropic uhecrs bl lacs correlation
Anisostropic UHECRs -BL-Lacs correlation

Accounting for deflection by Galactic MF correlation improves

for charged +1 particlesTinyakov and Tkachev ’01b, 02

auger euso
Auger & EUSO

EUSO

Auger South

DDM, Blasi, Olinto 2003

DeMarco et al (ICRC03)

slide28

Pierre Auger Project

  • 2 Giant AirShower Arrays
  • South – Argentina Funded
  • North – Not Funded Yet
  • 1600 particle detectors over
  • 3000 km2
  • + 4 Fluorescence Detectors
  • Will Measure Direction,
  • Energy, & Composition of
  • ~ 60 events/yr E > 1020eV
  • ~ 6000 events/yr E > 1019eV

> 250 scientists from 19 countries

J. Cronin and T. Yamamoto

slide29

Pierre Auger Project

3000 km2 - 1600 water tank array

auger south
Auger South

130 tanks on +40 EA

fluorescence telescopes
Fluorescence Telescopes
  • Complete Calibration from Atmosphere to Telescope
  • LASERS
  • LIDARS
  • Telescope and Mirrors Calibs…
inclined showers

top view

in shower plane

Inclined showers

Great Resource for

Asymmetry of Showers M. T. Dova et al ICRC03

which lead to novel

Composition Studies M. Ave et al ICRC03

slide34

Matter and Galaxies

N - Super Galactic Plane

S - see through Galactic Center

A. Kravtsov

auger n and s can measure large scale structure small scale clustering
Auger N and S can measure Large Scale Structure +Small Scale Clustering

Number of sources ~ 2

(blue or red)

N  2 x N

Statistics improve by 2

Overlap region (purple)

L  L/ 2

R  21/4 x R

N  23/4 x N

P. Sommers ‘03

gas dm
Gas + DM

Kravtsov, Klypin & Hoffman ‘01

sigl miniati en lin 03
Sigl, Miniati & Enßlin, ‘03

 UHECRs isotropization (?)

observer position

preliminary results
Preliminary results

Dolag, Grasso et al 03

  • Significant deflections are obtained only when UHECRs cross a rich cluster of galaxies at a distance < few Mpc’s
  • In the filaments, where
  •  deflections in filaments are neglibible
  • MF strength around the local group is
  • UHECRs are not isotropized !!
concluding
Concluding
  • UHECRs can map Magnetic Fields in Intergalactic Medium ( B ~ 1 - 10 nG) and the Galaxy (polarization).
  • Need complete simulations +
  • Better UHECR data
  • Watch for Auger S + N
msph simulations of mfs in rich clusters
MSPH simulations of MFs in rich clusters

Dolag, Bartelmann & Lesch, ‘99, ‘02

  • MSPH (Magnetic-SPH)simulations implement the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) strategy by adding MHD equations (Faraday equation) SPH:
  • N-BOBY SIMULATIONS of DM + GAS + MAGNETIC FIELDS
  • Initial conditions ( z ~ 20) : density fluctuation field compatible with -CDM + seed magnetic field
  • MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION:
  • (frozen-in field)
  • + non-linear MHD amplification due to the presence of shocks and turbulence
predictions for cdm
Predictions for -CDM

RMs

B(R)

Dolag, Baterlmann & Lesch ’02

They succeed to reproduce observations if

The memory of the initial MF geometrical structure is lost

slide44
Deflections induced by the smooth component of the cosmic MF:

are below experimental sensitivity if

This is consistent with the UHECRs – BL-Lacs correlation !

Probability to cross a rich cluster outside the LSC for a CR coming from d < 1000 Mpc:

Deflections have to be dominated by EGMF in the

local universe

It is consistent with hints of anisotropies in the UHECRs – BL-Lacs correlation

constrained msph simulation of the lsc
Constrained MSPH simulation of the LSC

Initial conditions on density fluctuations are constrained so that the

simulated smoothed density field is equal to that inferred from observations

  • The goal is to produce a realistic map of MF in the LSC

Kolatt ’96

Mathis et al. ‘01

dark matter only

( IRAS survey)

conclusions
Conclusions
  • MSPH simulations account for observed EGMF in rich clusters without requiring a strong smooth component in the IGM
  • The “maximal” EGMF compatible with observations give rise to significant UHECR deflections only when they cross or skim clusterized regions
  • This is consistent with the claimed UHECR-BL Lacs correlation
  • MSPH constrained simulations will provide soon maps of UHECR deflections to be compared with data from high statistics experiments
    • they will allow a more reliable source identification
    • provide a deeper insight on the nature of cosmological magnetic fields
    • Preliminary results suggest that
    • UHECR astronomy may be possible
the bl lacs uhecr connection
The BL-Lacs – UHECR Connection

Tinyakov & Tkachev ’01a

  • Small angle clustering:
  • Very likely, sources of UHECR are pointlike !
  • ● Correlation with -ray-loud BL-Lacs:

Accounting for deflection by MF in the Galaxy correlation improves

for charged +1 particlesTinyakov and Tkachev ’01b

implications for the egmf
Implications for the EGMF
  • AGASA angular resolution : 2.5 deg
  • d(z = 0.082) = 351 (70/h) Mpc
  • E = 4.09 E 19 eV

See also Berezinsky, Gazizov and Grigoreva ’02

Blasi & De Marco, ‘03

Tinyakov & Tkachev ’01c

agasa multiplets
AGASA multiplets

simulations withpoint sources

B=0 resol.=2.5º g=2.6 m=0

E > 4 1019 eV - 57 events

10-5 Mpc-3

Blasi, DDM 2003, AP in press

AUGER multiplets E > 1020 eV - 70 events in 5 yrs

EUSO multiplets E > 1020 eV - 180-360 events in 3 yrs

10-5 sources/Mpc3

from AGASA Small Scale Anisotropy w/ large uncertainties.

Auger & EUSO will greatly reduce the uncertainties.

DeMarco et al (ICRC03)

hires50
HiRes

Small Scale Clustering - Monocular J. Belz et al. ICRC03

  • No significant clustering seen yet.
  • “Bananas are harder than circles…”
  • Flux upper limits of on point sources
  • with E > 1018.5 eV Cygnus X-3
  • Dipole limit: Gal. Center, Centaurus A, M-87

HiRes-I Monocular Data, E > 1019.5 eV

HiRes-I Monocular Data, E > 1018.5 eV

Upper limit of 4 doublets (90% c.l.)

in HiRes-I monocular dataset.

hires51
HiRes

Small Scale Clustering - Stereo C. Finley et al. ICRC03

  • No significant clustering seen yet.

RMS fluctuations

Two-point correlation for HiRes Stereo Events > 1019 eV

extra galactic magnetic fields uhe cr gamma rays

Extra Galactic Magnetic Fields UHE CR + Gamma Rays

Secondary Photon spectrum modified by EGMFs via synchrotron losses of e+e- in EM cascade (Lee, A.O., Sigl ‘95)

BEG ~ 10-9 - 10-11 G

extra galactic magnetic fields uhecrs

Extra Galactic Magnetic Fields & UHECRs

Monte Carlo for Propagation with EGMF  Time Delay, Deflection Angle

(Lemoine, A.O., Sigl, Schramm’97, Sigl, Lemoine, A.O.’97)

E ~ 20 yr (D/10Mpc)2 (E/10EeV)-2 (B/10-11 G)2 (lc/1 Mpc)

E ~ 0.02o(D/10Mpc)-1/2 (E/1yr)1/2

Need 10 events/cluster

Auger

most recent exposures
Most Recent Exposures

Thanks to HiRes and AGASA Collaborations

too low statistics for clear gzk or no gzk determination
Too Low Statistics for clear GZK or no-GZK determination

Emax=1021.5 eV

HiRes

AGASA

DDM, Blasi, Olinto 2003, AP in press

DDM, Blasi, Olinto 2003, AP in press

number of events above 1020eV:

no GZK @ 2.5 sigma

number of events above 1020eV:

GZK cutoff

DeMarco et al (ICRC03)