Consumer Behavior– you are what you buy…. Did you know? Paper Marketing news Consumer behavior (web) Consumer behavior (ppt) Innovation diffusion (ppt) NLP Next week: Market research.
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what you buy…
Cultural, Social, Individual and
Psychological Factors affect all steps
Consumer Decision-Making Process
Stimuli (marketer dominated, other)
Marketing helps consumers recognize (or create) an imbalance between present status and preferred state
An internal search involves the scanning of one's memory to recall previous experiences or knowledge concerning solutions to the problem-- often sufficient for frequently purchased products.
Personal sources (friends and family)
Public sources (rating services like Consumer Reports)
An external search may be necessary when past experience or knowledge is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high, and/or the cost of gathering information is low.
Marketer-dominated sources (advertising or sales people)
The evoked set: a group of brands from which the buyer can choose
Other people often influence a consumers purchase decision. The marketer needs to know which people are involved in the buying decision and what role each person plays, so that marketing strategies can also be aimed at these people. (Kotler et al, 1994).
Note: teens are increasingly assuming more of these roles
Think about your past purchase– who was in which role?
Relative influence of husbands & wives
Pots & pans
Men’s leisure clothing
Men’s business clothing
Extent of role specialization
Increase in Consumer evaluation processes
and decision making
Did I make a good decision?
Did I buy the right product?
Did I get a good value?
Can minimize through:
Underpromise & overdeliver
a story of
…after being unable to reach the grapes the fox said, “these grapes are probably sour, and if I had them I would not eat them.”
Tendency to avoid information can be countered by eliciting interest,
norm of fairness, or perceive usefulness of information
Post-decision “buyer’s remorse” may be increased by importance or difficulty or irreversibility of decision
Counter-attitudinal action, freely chosen with little incentive or justification, leads to attitude change (e.g., new product at special low price)
Motivated to Process?
Ability to Process?
Nature of Active Cognitive Processing: (initial attitude, argument quality, etc.)
Retain or Regain Initial Attitude
Cognitive Structure Change: Are new cognitions adopted and stored in memory? Are different responses made salient than previously?
Enduring positive attitude change (persuasion)
Enduring negative attitude change (boomerang)
Elaboration Likelihood Method (ELM) of persuasion
Write in the number that best fits your view:
1 2 3 4 completely mostly mostly completely false false true true
_____1. I would prefer complex to simple problems.
_____2. I like to have the responsibility of handling a situation that requires a lot of thinking.
_____3. Thinking is not my idea of fun. *
_____4. I would rather do something that requires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities. *
_____5. I try to anticipate and avoid situations where there is likely chance I will have to think in depth about something. *
_____6. I find satisfaction in deliberating hard and for long hours.
_____7. I only think as hard as I have to. *
_____8. I prefer to think about small, daily projects to long-term ones. *
_____9. I like tasks that require little thought once I’ve learned them. *
_____10. The idea of relying on thought to make my way to the top appeals to me.
_____11. I really enjoy a task that involves coming up with new solutions to problems.
_____12. Learning new ways to think doesn’t excite me very much. *
_____13. I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles that I must solve.
_____14. The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me.
_____15. I would prefer a task that is intellectual, difficult, and important to one that is somewhat important but does not require much thought.
_____16. I feel relief rather than satisfaction after completing a task that required a lot of mental effort. *
_____17. It’s enough for me that something gets the job done; I don’t care how or why it works. *
_____18. I usually end up deliberating about issues even when they do not affect me personally.
Items 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16, and 17 are reverse scored
Need for Cognition Scale
Example: Attack ads during political campaigns