CSE 5343/7343 Fall 2006 Case Studies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CSE 5343/7343 Fall 2006 Case Studies

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  1. CSE 5343/7343Fall 2006Case Studies Windows UNIX Case Study

  2. Windows Case Study Outline • History • MS-DOS • Windows 3.xx • Windows NT • Windows 2000 • Windows XP • Design Philosophy • Process Management UNIX Case Study

  3. CAUTION:There are so many variations of Windows. Each version is different. Some are drastically different (even if the GUI is similar.) UNIX Case Study

  4. MS-DOS History ([1] pp 633-639) • 1975 • First real PC, Altair, developed by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems based on Intel 8080 8-bit microprocessor with 256 bytes of memory. • Bill Gates and Paul Allen of Microsoft develop a version of Basic for Altair. • CP/M was dominant OS. • IBM asked Microsoft to develop a ROM BASIC. IBM chose Intel 8088. Gates suggested IBM use CP/M-86. IBM met with Digital Research and CP/M-86 was running late. Microsoft decided to write its own OS. Microsoft purchased 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products. UNIX Case Study

  5. MS-DOS History (cont’d) • 1981 – MS-DOS prototype running in February and appeared in IBM PC announcement (MS-DOS 1.0) in August. • 4000 lines of assembly code • 12K memory • CP/M compatible • Device independent I/O – treated as files in Unix • Command processor had a resident and transient part UNIX Case Study

  6. MS-DOS History (cont’d) • MS-DOS 2.0 – March 1983 • 20,000 lines of code • IBM PC/XT with 10M hard disk • Hierarchical file system (as in Unix) • Device drivers • Users wanted multi-tasking, but instead Microsoft added the ability for a print spooler to run concurrently with other tasks in background mode as time permits. When MS-DOS has nothing to do an interrupt is generated to run the print spooler. UNIX Case Study

  7. MS-DOS History (cont’d) • MS-DOS 3.0 – August 1984 • 40,000 lines of code • PBM PC/AT with 20M hard and 1.2 floppy • Intel 80286 16M address space • 24 bit addresses • Ring protection mechanism • Cooperative multitasking • Virtual memory • Real address mode – 1 MB address space acts as fast 8086 • Protected mode – All 16 MB UNIX Case Study

  8. Windows History ([3],[4]) • Early Windows • Not true OS just a new GUI layer with “fixes” to address memory constraints. UNIX Case Study

  9. Windows History (cont’d) • Problems with DOS/Windows 3.1 • 16 bits; Can’t access all of memory. • 1M barrier for memory • Cooperative multitasking • Nonreentrant • Lost system resources • Win16 applications overwriting memory of another UNIX Case Study

  10. Windows Question Who invented windows? Who invented the mouse? ANSWER: XEROX PARC UNIX Case Study

  11. Windows 95 Design ([3]) • Design Goals: • Less than 4MB • Backward compatible (Support Win16 and DOS) • Increased stability – Fault handler is not part of application. • Three major portions: • User – I/O manager; Windows manager • GDI – GD manager • Kernel – Memory, Files, Task managers UNIX Case Study

  12. Windows 95 Design (cont’d) • Registry • Central information including startup and init. • Supports plug and play • Virtual Machine used to run Win16 applications. • User mode – kernel mode • Long file names UNIX Case Study

  13. OS/2 Design ([5]) • Microsoft/IBM designed to replace DOS on Intel machines • Early 1990s Microsoft released Windows 3.0 which took over the market • IBM viewed Windows as “stepping stone” to OS/2 • Microsoft wanted to have Windows compete with OS/2 • IBM/Microsoft split UNIX Case Study

  14. Windows NT Design([3],[5],[6]) • New Technology RSX – VMS – ELN – NT VMS +1 = WNT (HAL + 1 = IBM) All major designs of David Cutler • 1993, versions 3.1, 3.5, 3.51, 4.0 • Mostly C/C++ • 3.1 had same GUI as Windows • 32-bit OS UNIX Case Study

  15. Windows NT Design (cont’d) • Preemptive multi-tasking • Supports multiple processors • Used on many architectures • Backward compatibility • Fully reentrant code • Object oriented UNIX Case Study

  16. Windows NT Design (cont’d) • NTFS – NT File System • Permissions for file/directory and all objects • Security • Domain – Set of machines with similar uses and authorizations • Registry contains information about OS and application configurations: • Hardware • Installed software • Applications and file types • Current user • Actively loaded user profiles UNIX Case Study

  17. Windows 2000 Design([5],[7]) • (AKA) Windows NT 5.0 • Distributed File System • Multiple monitors • Objects • Event , Mutant, Mutex, Semaphore, Thread, Timer • Interrupt, Asynchronous Procedure Call (APC), Process • Subsystems provide backward compatibility • Like virtual machines UNIX Case Study

  18. Windows XP Design ([7]) • 32/64 bit • Preemptive multitasking • October 2001 released • Client-server architecture for multiple processors UNIX Case Study

  19. Win32 Subsystem ([6]) • Used in most Windows OSs • Window manager • Process/Thread • CreateFile • GetMessage UNIX Case Study

  20. Windows Process Management UNIX Case Study

  21. MS-DOS Processes ([2]) • Single tasking since functions are nonreentrant. • Only real multitasking is background for printing. Can change time slice for this. • EXEC function used by COMMAND.COM • Allocate memory • Write program segment prefix • Load program into memory • Transfer control to program • Child may in turn use EXEC UNIX Case Study

  22. Early Windows Processes([2]) • Cooperative multitasking: • Windows program voluntarily yields control at certain times (Windows 4 and 6.2) UNIX Case Study

  23. Windows NT Processes ([6]) • Executable program (code and data) • Private virtual address space • System resources (semaphores, ports, etc) • Process ID • Threads UNIX Case Study

  24. Windows NT Threads ([6]) • Registers • Stacks (kernel, user) • Private storage (used by subsystems) • Thread ID (client ID) • Mode transition (switch from user mode to kernel mode) does not require a context switch. • Test: • Windows Task Manager/Performance • Control Panel/Administrative Tools/Performance UNIX Case Study

  25. Windows NT Handles ([6]) • Provides ability to access an object at a certain level of priviledge. • Handle Table entry in EPROCESS block • Standardized interface to objects UNIX Case Study

  26. Windows NT PCB ([6]) • Executive (EPROCESS) blocks • ETHREAD blocks • Process Environment Block (PEB) • Thread Environment Block (TEB) UNIX Case Study

  27. Windows NT Fibers ([6]) • NT 3.51 • Subsets of threads • “Lightweight” threads • User level threads • Scheduled to run by programmers not OS UNIX Case Study

  28. Windows NT Process States ([6]) • Ready • Standby – Next to run • Running • Waiting • Transition – Ready to run but kernel stack paged out • Terminated UNIX Case Study

  29. Windows NT Quantums ([6]) • Default: • 6 on Windows NT Workstation • 36 on Windows NT Server • Units are not time values, but relative • At clock interrupt, 3 is deducted from quantum if it is 0 then another thread may run. UNIX Case Study

  30. Windows NT Thread Scheduling ([6]) • Preemptive priority • Multilevel queues – RR within queue • Scheduling independent of process • Threads have processor affinity • If thread is preempted, it is put at the front of the ready queue for that priority. When scheduled it receives the rest of its quantum. UNIX Case Study

  31. Windows NT Priorities ([6]) • 32 priority levels • 16-31 real time • 1-15 variable levels • 0 system level • Priority classes • Real time, High, Normal, Idle • Threads (Type with Class) • Time critical, Highest, Above normal, Normal, Below normal, Lowest, Idle UNIX Case Study

  32. Windows NT Priorities ([6]) • Default base priority level within class • Thread has base and current priority • Priorities raised (1-15 range never above) • After wait state • Entering wait state • Threads not getting CPU time • Priority goes down after each quantum until base is reached UNIX Case Study

  33. IPC([3],[4],[7]) • Windows 95 • Thunking: • Allows 16bit modules to communicate with 32bit • Routine that maps addresses UNIX Case Study

  34. IPC (cont’d) • Messages • Queue per thread • Semaphores • Win16 mutex • Used to prevent to Win16 applications from executing the same code • Ignored by Win32 applications • Limits multitasking UNIX Case Study

  35. IPC (cont’d) • Clipboard • Actually shared memory • OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) • Windows 95 • Drag & Drop • Enhancement to DDE • Embed or link data from one application to another. • Link – pointer to data • Embed – actually move UNIX Case Study

  36. IPC (cont’d) • DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) • Windows 3.1 • Protocol that allows Windows applications to share data. UNIX Case Study

  37. IPC (cont’d) • Deferred Procedure Call (DPC) • Windows NT/2000 • System function will be (ultimately) executed • IRQL (Interrupt Queue Level) • Asynchronous Procedure Call (APC) • Like DPC but for users • Nonblocking • Both are viewed as software interrupts UNIX Case Study

  38. References • Harvey M. Deitel, Operating Systems Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990. • Mark Minasi, etal., Inside MS-DOS 6.2 Second Edition, New Riders Publishing, 1993. • Jime Boyce, etal., Inside Windows 95, New Riders Publishing, 1995. • Richard Wagner, Jim Boyce, Forrest Houlette, Randall Kennedy, and Keven Stoltz, Ultimate Windows 3.1, New Riders publishing, 1993. • John Savill, The Windows NT and Windows 2000 Answer Book A Colmplete Resource from the Desktop to the Enterprise, Addison-Wesley, 1999. • David A. Solomon, Inside Windows NT Second Edition, Microsoft Press, 1998. • Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, and Greg Gagne, Windows XP Update Operating System Concepts Sixth Edition, 2003, John Wiley & Sons. UNIX Case Study