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Coercion - Armed Force to ensure that have-nots fulfill obligations - Elites dependant on support of foreign power - Power only shared across class lines when those below show organization and potential use of force. Hegemony - Ideology: changes over time. Bases of Inequality.

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bases of inequality
Coercion

- Armed Force to ensure that have-nots fulfill obligations

- Elites dependant on support of foreign power

- Power only shared across class lines when those below show organization and potential use of force

Hegemony

- Ideology: changes over time

Bases of Inequality
new groups gain participation
New Groups gain Participation
  • 1. Late 19th: Commercial Sector Associated with Export and Import
  • 2. Early 20th: Industrial Elites and Middle Classes
  • 3. 1920s/30s: Labor Begins Organizing (not real player in most countries until 1940s/50s)
  • 4. Peasants (slowest to achieve participation)
becoming a participant
Becoming a Participant
  • Military Faction (by seizing garrisons)
  • Peasants (by seizing land)
  • Student group (demonstrating ability to turn out numbers for march)
  • Political Party (getting votes)
arenas and weapons of political action
Arenas and “Weapons” of Political Action
  • 1. Least Developed: Private Arena of family pressure, blackmail, contacts, bribery, graft
  • 2. Most Developed: Public Arena of elections, debates, judicial review
  • 3. Intermediate Arenas: “The Streets” – strikes, riots, demonstrations
social change
Social Change
  • Can be stimulated by new or imported ideologies (Marxism, Liberalism, Indigenismo, Liberation Theology)
  • Can be stimulated by new actors (development agencies, immigrant labor leaders)
  • Can be stimulated by disasters (earthquakes, wars, economic collapse)
3 main processes
3 Main Processes
  • 1. EVOLUTION (incorporation of new actors, representing previously unrepresented social strata, without displacement of previous participants in system)
  • REVOLUTION (displacement of groups representing one or more strata from the upper reaches of social pyramid)
  • COUNTER-REVOLUTION (displacement or elimination of effective participation of groups representing strata from the base of the social pyramid)
evolution
EVOLUTION
  • Most developed in Southern Cone and Costa Rica
  • Easier to admit new groups in periods of economic expansion
  • Middle class gets access through parties; requires some support of working classes, so makes some concessions (social programs)
  • Working class participation rarer
  • Reversed in periods of economic decline
revolution
REVOLUTION
  • 2 stages of violence
  • Haiti (1804)
  • Mexico (1911)
  • Bolivia (1952)
  • Cuba (1959)
  • Nicaragua (1979)
factors that block evolutionary nonviolent change
Factors that Block Evolutionary Nonviolent Change
  • 1. Great social distance between elites and masses
  • 2. Close ties between dominant power and client state
  • 3. Physical uprooting of subject populations
phases of revolution
Phases of Revolution
  • 1. Power Transfer
  • 2. Class Demolition and Redistribution
  • 3. Institutionalization
counterrevolution
COUNTERREVOLUTION
  • Guatemala (1954)
  • Brazil (1964)
  • Bolivia (1964)
  • Chile (1973)
  • Uruguay (1973)
  • Argentina (1966, 1976)
facilitating factors for counterrevolution
Facilitating Factors for Counterrevolution
  • 1. Economic deterioriation, especially runaway inflation
  • 2. Threat to military
  • 3. Help or neutrality of dominant foreign power
phases of counterrevolution
Phases of Counterrevolution
  • 1. Consolidation
  • 2. Political Demobilization
  • 3. Economic Transformation
  • 4. Institutionalization
  • 5. Decompression