Bacteria Bacteria on the tip of a pin. Prokaryotes. Identified by their • Shapes • Chemical nature of their cell walls • The ways they move • The ways they obtain energy. Basic Structure Cell wall – protects the cell & gives it shape.
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Identified by their
• Chemical nature
of their cell walls
• The ways they
• The ways they
Cell wall – protects the cell & gives it shape.
Outer membrane – protects the cell against some anibiotics (only present in gram-negative)
Cell membrane – regulates movement of materials into & out of the cell; contains
enzymes important to cellular respiration.
Plasmid – circular piece of DNA that contains some genes obtained through genetic recombination.
Capsule & Slime layer – protect the cell & assist in attaching the cell to other surfaces.
– Diplo – cells are paired
– Staphylo – cells are in
– Strepto – cells are in
Cell Wall• Two different types of cell walls are found in eubacteria• Gram staining helps to tell them apart using two different types of dye– Violet - primary stain– Red - counterstain
• Gram positive– Bacteria cells containing peptidoglycan absorb only the violet dye – Appear purple in the microscope• Gram negative – Bacteria with a second(outer) layer of lipid and carbohydrate molecules – Extra layer absorbs only the red stain – Appear pink in the microscope
• Gram Positive – stains purple
• Gram Negative – stains pink
environmental conditions, such as heat and drought.