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3. Hybrid Sterility. Males & Females of different strains can produce non-viable offspring Incompatible strains can be generated through several ways Direct genetic manipulation (“Transposable Elements”) Microbially-mediated (Cytoplasmic Incompatibility). Example: Wolbachia in lower flies.

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3 hybrid sterility
3. Hybrid Sterility
  • Males & Females of different strains can produce non-viable offspring
  • Incompatible strains can be generated through several ways
    • Direct genetic manipulation (“Transposable Elements”)
    • Microbially-mediated (Cytoplasmic Incompatibility)
physical mechanical tactics
Physical & Mechanical Tactics

Main Categories

  • Environmental Modification
  • Physical Exclusion
  • Direct control of pest individuals

These tend to be used in special situations such as structural IPM or with special types of pests such as vertebrates.

environmental modifications in structures
Environmental Modifications in Structures
  • Eliminate conditions conducive to a pest infestation will reduce pest attractions to a particular area.
  • These include:
    • Removing the breeding source if possible,
    • Eliminating moisture conditions,
    • Eliminating harborages,
    • Cutting back shrubs and tree limbs next to buildings,
    • Using proper lighting (light management) to draw night flying insects away from the property.
environmental modification categories
Environmental Modification Categories
  • Temperature – often used for stored products
    • Heat
    • Cold
  • Water
    • Flooding
    • Dessication
    • Irrigation
  • Light
    • Mulches

Flame weeders

Inorganic mulches were never living. Gravel, rock, plastic, landscape fabric, etc.

Organic mulches were recently living tissue

exclusion used 4 ways
Exclusion – Used 4 Ways
  • Used to keep pests from entering an area or building
  • Limit movement within an area
  • Isolating a recurring pest problem (e.g. entrance or doorway)
  • Isolating a highly sensitive area (e.g. operating room).

Note: Exclusion is very often associated with structural pest management

exclusion in structures
Exclusion in Structures
  • Doors fit & seal, windows screened, both kept shut.
  • Caulking & other sealants used at:
    • Utility entrances (plumbing, electrical, sewer)
    • Exterior (wood trim, brick mortar, foundation cracks & crevices).
  • Isolation of deliveries & waste.
physical exclusion in fields
Physical Exclusion in Fields
  • Barriers: Effectiveness varies by pest
    • Mollusks
    • Arthropods
    • Birds
    • Mammals
  • Traps
    • Weeds
    • Arthropods
    • Vertebrates
barrier examples
Barrier Examples

Netting and screens are often used as an insect barrier

Floating row covers on cabbage protecting against cabbage butterflies

Slugs won’t cross copper

trap examples click on picture for more detail
Trap Examples -- Click on picture for more detail

Numerous live traps for vertebrates can be found here

Slug trap

Pathogen trap for use in greenhouses or irrigation water

physical controls in structures
Physical Controls in Structures

Using energy factors in the environment such as heat, cold, light, sound, x-rays, infrared rays, etc., to kill pests or attract them to a killing mechanism

  • Thermal Controls (heat and cold treatment)
  • Electrocution (zappers)
  • Microwave suspect materials
direct control
Direct Control

Removing pests by hand or using mechanical devices to trap, kill, or keep them out

  • Hand picking, killing individually
  • Some Traps
  • Vacuums
  • Hoeing
  • Shooting
trap placement in structures
Trap Placement in Structures
  • Place close to walls, behind objects in dark corners, wherever pest activity seen.
  • Place them so that pests following normal travel (usually close to a wall) will pass directly over the trigger.
  • Leave traps untriggered until the bait has been taken at least once prevents rats or mice becoming trap-shy.
  • Baits compete with other food sources.
problems with mechanical control
Problems with Mechanical Control
  • Generally more practical in small areas than large ones.
  • Labor intensive
  • Cumbersome (e.g. must remember where traps are located & service them)
  • Inefficient (removes only a small portion of pest population)
  • Often viewed as inhumane
  • Traps are more useful as a monitoring procedure.