3. Hybrid Sterility. Males & Females of different strains can produce non-viable offspring Incompatible strains can be generated through several ways Direct genetic manipulation (“Transposable Elements”) Microbially-mediated (Cytoplasmic Incompatibility). Example: Wolbachia in lower flies.
These tend to be used in special situations such as structural IPM or with special types of pests such as vertebrates.
Inorganic mulches were never living. Gravel, rock, plastic, landscape fabric, etc.
Organic mulches were recently living tissue
Note: Exclusion is very often associated with structural pest management
Netting and screens are often used as an insect barrier
Floating row covers on cabbage protecting against cabbage butterflies
Slugs won’t cross copper
Numerous live traps for vertebrates can be found here
Pathogen trap for use in greenhouses or irrigation water
Using energy factors in the environment such as heat, cold, light, sound, x-rays, infrared rays, etc., to kill pests or attract them to a killing mechanism
Removing pests by hand or using mechanical devices to trap, kill, or keep them out