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Socialism and African Development. PIA 2574. At Issue: new look at development strategy the role that ideology has played in effecting performance of state (self-ascribed ideology). Socialism in Africa. The Socialist Framework.

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socialism in africa
At Issue: new look at development strategy

the role that ideology has played in effecting performance of state

(self-ascribed ideology)

Socialism in Africa
the socialist framework
The Socialist Framework
  • .Dependency as an alternative form of analysis to Modernization
  • Influence of socialist ideas since 1965

in Africa

tanzania s ujamaa policy
Tanzania’s Ujamaa Policy
  • President Julius Nyerere
  • Arusha Declaration: 1967: Socialist Declaration- Control Commanding Heights
  • Collectivism and Self-Reliance
  • An approach to agricultural class formation
the 1960s voluntary collective farms
The 1960s-Voluntary Collective Farms
  • Goal: create villages from small family households
  • Self-sustaining economic units of 20-30 families
  • Primary target- the subsistence farmer
  • 1968- official policy but voluntary
  • Goal: Prevention of a rural proletariat
  • 1970- Few villages established
  • Government Spending only on “ujamaa villages”
  • Popular Response- poorest areas of the country marginal farming/pastoral areas
after 1973

After 1973

Targets the wealthier areas and the rich farmers




Forced Collectivization and Collapse of Policy

problems with ujamaa
Problems with Ujamaa
  • Tanzaphilia- “Socialism and the Field Administrator”
  • Shift from voluntary to compulsory: “Burning Houses”
  • Shift from goal of local level decision-making and village autonomy to centralized decision-making and standardized policies
  • Collectivization Forced, use of state violence
  • Villages became very large: 300-500 people or more
  • Target: Universal villagization by the end of 1976
  • Resistance from Wealthy Farmers
government reaction
Government Reaction
  • Withdrawal
  • Drought, Agricultural Mismanagement
  • Agricultural Collapse
  • 1983- Tanzania Moves Towards Policy Reform
regime types in africa crawford young
Regime Types in Africa (Crawford Young)

1. African (Socialist) and mixed Economy regimes: pragmatism or African capitalism (Kenya and Senegal in 1960s)

2. Socialist- Populist (Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique in 1970s)

african regimes
African Regimes

3. Afro-Marxist or Leninist Vanguard regimes (Angola, Benine1980s)

4. Marxist-Leninist- (Ethiopia under Dergue)

5.Post-Structural Adjustment Regimes Mozambique, Uganda and Ghana (1990s)

attractiveness of an ideology
Attractiveness of an ideology
  • Impact of Policy on development in the 1980s
  • Will effect rule making and resource allocation
  • Ideology does make a difference
attractiveness of an ideology1
Attractiveness of an ideology
  • There is a measure of internal slack or decision-making authority
  • A choice that can be made (in terms of dependency) that can be made internally
  • Thus Socialist Policies can be tested
evaluation criteria

Evaluation criteria-

Five measures re. Socialism (1965-1985)


1. Growth is still important- though downplays mineral induced growth and tourism

2. Focus is on peasant based subsistence agriculture rather than export commercial agriculture



Import Substitution, inflation and decline of food production

equity or distribution effects
Equity or distribution: Effects
  • Effect of taxation- especially indirect tax mechanisms (extractive)
  • Pricing policies deflate income for agricultural commodities
  • Relocation of rural resources to urban areas
  • Wage control policies (no strike clauses)
autonomy and self reliance
Autonomy and self-reliance-
  • Delinkage from the international economy (Autarky)
  • Increased debt burden, continued use of expatriate personnel as planners (often sympathetic)
  • Exploitation of natural resources and foreign exchange outflow
exploitation of human rights
Exploitation of Human Rights
  • Goal- human dignity
  • Reality of repression- movement of peoples
  • Economic and political refugees
  • Increased size of security forces
development capacity goals and results
Development capacity: Goals and Results
  • Ability to plan and manage state resources and stimulate economic behavior change
  • Expansion of the social capacity of the state
  • The African disaster- Tyrants, corruption and Skimmed public resources


Why has it Failed?

  • What have you been reading lately?
  • What should others read?