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The Gilded Age

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  1. The Gilded Age I. The New South A. Visions of a New South B. The Economy C. African-Americans D. The Jim Crow South E. The Black Response

  2. Post-Civil War Southern Economy • Textiles

  3. Post-Civil War Southern Economy • Textiles • Tobacco

  4. Post-Civil War Southern Economy • Textiles • Tobacco • Coal

  5. Post-Civil War Southern Economy • Textiles • Tobacco • Coal • Iron and Steel

  6. Post-Civil War Southern Economy • Textiles • Tobacco • Coal • Iron and Steel • Lumber Industry

  7. Southern Agriculture • Single Cash Crop Economy

  8. Southern Agriculture • Single Cash Crop Economy • Mostly Cotton and Tobacco

  9. Southern Agriculture • Single Cash Crop Economy • Cotton and Tobacco mostly • Sharecropping and Tenant Farming

  10. Southern Agriculture • Single Cash Crop Economy • Cotton and Tobacco mostly • Sharecropping and Tenant Farming • Crop Lien System

  11. After the Civil War, the price of cotton immediately went up to $1.00 per pound • Then began a steady downward spiral • 1875- 11 cents/pound • 1894- less than 5 cents/pound

  12. After the Civil War, the price of cotton immediately went up to $1.00 per pound • Then began a steady downward spiral • 1875- 11 cents/pound • 1894- less than 5 cents/pound • As a result- farmers had to plant more and more cotton to survive

  13. The Jim Crow South • Disenfranchisement (loss of the vote)

  14. The Jim Crow South • Disenfranchisement (loss of the vote) • Grandfather Clause

  15. The Jim Crow South • Disenfranchisement (loss of the vote) 1. Grandfather clause 2. Poll Tax

  16. The Jim Crow South • Disenfranchisement (loss of the vote) 1. Grandfather clause 2. Poll Tax 3. Literacy Tests

  17. The Jim Crow South • Disenfranchisement (loss of the vote) 1. Grandfather clause 2. Poll Tax 3. Literacy Tests • Results La-1896: 130,000 blacks registered La-1904: 1,300 !

  18. The Jim Crow South • Jim Crow Laws: Legalized Segregation in all public and private facilities 1. Transportation 2. Schools 3. Libraries 4. Drinking Fountains 5. Even morgues and funeral parlors!

  19. Sharecropper in cabin

  20. Homer Plessy

  21. Plessy v. Ferguson1896 • The Case: Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, refused to ride in a whites-only RR car, and was arrested. Case appealed to Supreme Ct.

  22. Plessy v. Ferguson1896 • The Case: Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, refused to ride in a whites-only RR car, and was arrested. Case appealed to Supreme Ct. • The Ruling: SEPARATE facilities were OK as long as they were EQUAL.

  23. Plessy v. Ferguson1896 • The Case: Homer Plessy, 1/8th black, refused to ride in a whites-only RR car, and was arrested. Case appealed to Supreme Ct. • The Ruling: SEPARATE facilities were OK as long as they were EQUAL. • Results: Legalized Jim Crow Segregation until 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education)

  24. Ida B. Wells- Anti-Lynching Newspaper Editor

  25. Other Important Black Leaders • T. Thomas Fortune: helped found NAACP • “Pap” Singleton: tried to form black “colonies” in the West • Henry Turner: Organized “Back to Africa” Movement

  26. W.E.B. Dubois

  27. W.E.B. Dubois • Well Educated--first African-American to receive PhD from Harvard

  28. W.E.B. Dubois • Well Educated--first African-American to receive PhD from Harvard • Wanted total equality immediately

  29. W.E.B. Dubois • Well Educated--first African-American to receive PhD from Harvard • Wanted total equality immediately • Wanted traditional higher education for blacks

  30. W.E.B. Dubois • Well Educated--first African-American to receive PhD from Harvard • Wanted total equality immediately • Wanted traditional higher education for blacks • The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

  31. W.E.B. Dubois • Well Educated--first African-American to receive PhD from Harvard • Wanted total equality immediately • Wanted traditional higher education for blacks • The Souls of Black Folk (1903) • The Niagara Movement--led to NAACP

  32. Booker T. Washington

  33. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama

  34. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama • Believed in vocational education for blacks

  35. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama • Believed in vocational education for blacks • Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

  36. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama • Believed in vocational education for blacks • Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama • Believed in gradual equality

  37. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama • Believed in vocational education for blacks • Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama • Believed in gradual equality • Accused of being an accomodationist or Uncle Tom

  38. Booker T. Washington • Born a slave in Alabama • Believed in vocational education for blacks • Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama • Believed in gradual equality • Accused of being an accommodationist or Uncle Tom • Received much white support