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Radiological and Laser Safety Training. Manuals . Manuals and procedures ES&H Manual Chapter 9 (Radiological Safety) ES&H Manual Chapter 10 (Laser Safety)

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Manuals and procedures

  • ES&H Manual Chapter 9 (Radiological Safety)

  • ES&H Manual Chapter 10 (Laser Safety)

  • Radiological Control Manual

sources of radiation at slac
Sources of Radiation at SLAC

Various operations and activities at SLAC generate, or

have the potential to generate, ionizing radiation. SLAC’s

sources of ionizing radiation include:

  • Accelerator operations generate prompt radiation
  • Auxiliary devices: guns, klystrons, RF devices
  • Components or materials in the accelerator housing, may be made radioactive by accelerator operations
  • Radioactive sources
  • X-ray units, Radiation Generating Devices (RGDs)

Note: Some consumer products have naturally-occurring radioactive

elements (thorium welding electrodes, and thorium sand blasting


radiation generating devices rgd
Radiation Generating Devices (RGD)

Soil Density Gauges

  • Used at construction jobs for soil compact testing
  • Has high activity radioactive sources
  • RGD Authorization Sheets
  • Each unit must be approved and

registered BEFORE allowed at SLAC

naturally occurring ram
Naturally Occurring RAM

Sand Blasting media

Welding electrodes

terms and conditions
Terms and Conditions
  • Under the Terms and Conditions of the SLAC Blank Order Agreement certain materials are required to have approval of the Radiation Protection Department (RPFO Group Leader or SLAC Radiation Safety Officer) prior to bringing them on site. 

This includes soil density gauges and naturally occurring radioactive material such as thorium welding electrodes and thorium sand blasting media. Complete list is located on the RP website:

If any subcontractor or lower tier subcontractor are considering purchasing, or bringing such material onto the SLAC site, they shall notify and receive authorization BEFORE bringing these or similar materials to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Review and authorization is needed prior to bringing these items on site. 

radiation protection program
Radiation Protection Program

For most people at SLAC, these sources of radiation represent a negligible hazard and the resulting risk remains very low. However, for those who work near these sources, the hazard could be significant without appropriate control and mitigation.

Department of Energy and other Federal, State and local government agencies highly regulate and routinely review all aspects of ionizing radiation.

To protect against radiation hazards, and to comply with the applicable regulations, SLAC has implemented a comprehensive radiation protection program.

radiation protection program continued
Radiation Protection Program continued

The goal of SLAC radiation protection program is to keep all exposures to its personnel, visitors, public and environment As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), and far below the applicable regulatory limits.

Engineering and administrative controls are used to control and mitigate the hazards:

  • Engineering controls: Shielding, Personnel Protection System (PPS)
  • Administrative controls: Beam Authorization Sheets (BAS), Beam Line Authorizations (BLA), Radiation Safety Work Control Form (RSWCF), Radiological Work Permits (RWP), Excavation Permits, and Penetration Permits
individual s roles and responsibilities
Individual’s Roles and Responsibilities

Everyone at SLAC must follow the radiation safety requirements. This includes training and dosimetry.

Training :

  • RWT is required to enter radiological areas or handle/work with radioactive material
  • GERT is required for unescorted access to Controlled Areas or Radiologically Controlled Areas


Wear your dosimeter whenever you are in an area with a sign indicating that a dosimeter is required for entry.

Notify RP promptly if your dosimeter is lost or compromised (i.e. exposed to medical, dental, or airport x-rays).

Return your dosimeter at the end of the wear period or at the end of the project, whichever is sooner.

Contractors who do not return dosimeters will be charged

contractor supervisor s responsibilities
Contractor Supervisor’s Responsibilities
  • Don’t let your personnel conduct a job unless they are trained and authorized to do so.
  • Ensure that direct reports are current with their required radiation safety training.
  • Ensure radiological systems under your controls are properly maintained.
  • Ensure that RP guidance for radiological controls is properly incorporated during the design, maintenance or modification.
  • Ensure that an RWP (Radiological Work Permit) is used in every applicable case.
  • Do not bring radioactive materials or RGDs to SLAC without prior RP approval.
  • Keep radioactive materials in posted areas.
  • Ensure that visitors, subcontractors, users comply with SLAC radiation control policies.
radiological posting controlled areas
Radiological Posting: Controlled Areas

GERT is the minimum training required for

unescorted access to Controlled Areas and RCA’s

  • Controlled Areas
    • No dosimeters
    • Form B for escorted individuals
    • Form C for escorted groups (>5)
    • Visitors OK (Escort by GERT/RWT)
  • RCA’s
    • No dosimeters if < 8 hours /year
    • Form B for escorted individuals
    • Form C for escorted groups (>5)
    • Visitors OK (Escort by GERT/RWT)
radiological posting radiological areas
Radiological Posting: Radiological Areas

Additional controls required for entry into radiological areas:

Radiation Area

High Radiation Area

Contamination Area

  • RWT I
  • RWP
  • Personnel dosimeter
  • RWT I
  • RWP
  • Personnel dosimeter
  • Supplemental dosimeter
  • RWT II
  • RWP
  • Personnel dosimeter
  • PPE

NOTE: No visitors or escorted personnel are allowed in these areas without prior written approval from RP.

pregnant worker advisory
Pregnant Worker Advisory

Please be aware

  • Embryo or fetus is more sensitive to radiation than an adult
  • SLAC fully supports special efforts to minimize exposure during pregnancy
  • You are encouraged to discuss radiation monitoring with the Medical Department if you plan, suspect or know that you are pregnant
  • You must notify your supervisor of your pregnancy if you desire any accommodation

Laser use in Construction

  • Manufacturer regulations for alignment lasers (OSHA 21CFR1040.11)
    • “each surveying, leveling or alignment laser product shall comply with all of the applicable requirements of 1040.10 for a Class 1, 2 or 3R laser product and shall not permit human access to laser radiation in excess of the accessible emission limits of Class 3R.”



Average power levels must not exceed 5mW

  • Regulations for Laser use in Construction (if Class 2 or higher)
    • Must satisfy OSHA regulations in 29 CFR 1926.54, including these 3 requirements:
      • Laser operators must have appropriate training and documentation for this training must be provided at the job site.
      • No unattended operation is allowed.
      • Area warning signs shall be posted (examples given on next slide).
    • *Not meeting above 3 requirements for Class 1 lasers is considered a “de minimus” violation (i.e. without penalty).

Laser use in Construction

Examples of Area Warning Signs

  • Safety for Class 2 and Class 3R visible lasers used in surveying and alignment
  • Class 2 devices are safer to use than Class 3R, because of the lower power. Both should be used with caution and never stared into.
  • These lasers are not considered a significant hazard for accidental exposure, because adequate protection is afforded by the eye aversion response to a bright light – response time is about ¼ second. However, a direct exposure from this type of laser can be a startle hazard and cause temporary flash-blindness, after images and glare responses.
  • Permanent damage is possible if the beam is stared into.
contact information
Contact Information
  • Contact RP with any questions, concerns or comments on any issues related to personnel or environment radiation protection issues.
  • Visit us on the web at:
    • Site Access and Identification Badges Policy
    • Current Radiological Surveys of SLAC Accelerator Housing Locations
    • Radiological Classification of Common SLAC Areas
    • LCW and Discharge Radiological Current Status
    • Current Radiological Work Permits
  • For Radiological Services x4299